You will select one nursing theory and one counseling theory to best guide your practice in psychotherapy. You will explain why you selected these theories and support your approach with evidence-based literature. You also will develop at least three goals and at least three objectives for the practicum experience in this course the selected nursing theory of choice is modelling and role-modelling theory that was developed in 1983 by Evelyn Tomlin, Helen Erikson, and Mary Ann.


When it comes to guiding practice in psychotherapy, the selection of nursing and counseling theories plays a crucial role in ensuring effective patient care. This paper aims to present the Modelling and Role-Modelling (MRM) theory as the nursing theory of choice for guiding psychotherapy practice. The MRM theory, developed in 1983 by Evelyn Tomlin, Helen Erikson, and Mary Ann Swain, focuses on individualized care and the role of the nurse in understanding and empathizing with their patients’ unique experiences and perspectives.

Rationale for Selecting the Modelling and Role-Modelling Theory

There are several reasons for selecting the Modelling and Role-Modelling (MRM) theory as the guiding theory for psychotherapy practice. Firstly, the MRM theory aligns with a patient-centered approach, which is essential in effective psychotherapy. The theory emphasizes understanding and respecting the unique experiences and perspectives of each patient, promoting a personalized approach to care (Tomlin, 1988).

Secondly, the MRM theory emphasizes the importance of empathy in the therapeutic relationship. Empathy allows the nurse to understand the patient’s feelings and experiences, promoting a therapeutic alliance founded on trust and understanding (Erikson, 1986). By incorporating empathy into psychotherapy practice, the nurse can create a safe and nonjudgmental environment for the patient to explore their thoughts and emotions.

Moreover, the MRM theory acknowledges the influence of culture and social context on an individual’s experiences. By considering these factors, nurses can provide culturally sensitive and holistic care, which is essential in promoting healing and overcoming psychological challenges (Swain, 2000).

Evidence-Based Literature Supporting the Modelling and Role-Modelling Theory

The selection of the MRM theory is further supported by evidence-based literature. Research studies have highlighted the positive impact of a patient-centered approach in psychotherapy. For example, a study by Hvinden et al. (2019) explored the effectiveness of patient-centered care in improving mental health outcomes. The findings indicated that when patients perceive their healthcare provider as empathetic and responsive to their individual needs, they are more likely to experience better mental health outcomes.

Additionally, a systematic review conducted by Neergaard et al. (2010) examined the influence of empathy on therapeutic outcomes. The review found that empathy is significantly associated with positive patient outcomes, including increased satisfaction, improved adherence to treatment plans, and reduced psychological distress.

Another study by Camic et al. (2018) investigated the importance of cultural competence in psychotherapy. The findings revealed that culturally sensitive care, which includes understanding and respecting the patient’s cultural background, leads to better treatment outcomes and increased patient satisfaction.

Overall, the evidence-based literature provides substantial support for the MRM theory, emphasizing its relevance in promoting patient-centered care, empathy, and cultural sensitivity in psychotherapy practice.

Goals and Objectives for the Practicum Experience

To effectively apply the MRM theory in psychotherapy practice, the following goals and objectives can be developed for the practicum experience:

Goal 1: Develop a patient-centered approach

Objective 1.1: Demonstrate active listening skills by providing undivided attention and maintaining eye contact during therapy sessions.

Objective 1.2: Collaborate with patients to identify their unique needs and goals for therapy, allowing them to actively participate in their own care.

Objective 1.3: Modify treatment plans based on patient feedback and preferences to ensure individualized care.

Goal 2: Foster empathy in the therapeutic relationship

Objective 2.1: Demonstrate empathy by acknowledging and validating patients’ emotions and experiences.

Objective 2.2: Use open-ended questions to encourage patients to share their thoughts and feelings, facilitating a deeper understanding of their perspectives.

Objective 2.3: Practice reflective listening, summarizing and paraphrasing patients’ statements to show understanding and encourage further exploration.

Goal 3: Promote cultural sensitivity in psychotherapy

Objective 3.1: Increase cultural competence by actively seeking to understand patients’ cultural backgrounds and how it may influence their experiences and beliefs.

Objective 3.2: Adapt therapeutic techniques to align with patients’ cultural values and preferences.

Objective 3.3: Obtain knowledge and resources to address cultural barriers that may impact therapy, such as language barriers or differing cultural norms.

By setting these goals and objectives, the practicum experience can be tailored to facilitate the application of the MRM theory in psychotherapy practice, providing a framework for providing patient-centered, empathetic, and culturally sensitive care.