TOPIC: The Certified Midwife movement in the US – inception, progress, and barriers. Be sure to include and summarize the following in relation to midwifery: Briefly describe significant changes, circumstances, or happenings. Explain why you think these were important for midwifery. (You do not need to include material not relevant to the specific period, unless it is essential to your discussion; anything you draw in this way should be brief. You may assume general knowledge.)

Title: The Certified Midwife Movement in the US: Inception, Progress, and Barriers

The Certified Midwife (CM) movement in the United States has experienced significant changes, circumstances, and happenings since its inception. This article aims to summarize these developments, highlighting their importance for the midwifery profession. By exploring these changes, we gain insights into the progression of midwifery and the barriers encountered along the way.

I. Inception of the Certified Midwife Movement
The Certified Midwife movement emerged in the late 20th century, primarily in response to the increasing medicalization of childbirth. In 1994, the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) created a new midwifery credential, the Certified Midwife, to recognize those who did not hold a nursing degree. This decision aimed to expand midwifery access to women and encourage greater professional autonomy.


This creating of a new credential highlights the ACNM’s commitment to ensuring that midwives without nursing degrees could practice within the healthcare system. By recognizing the varying educational pathways into midwifery, the movement addressed a longstanding barrier and expanded the potential pool of midwifery providers.

II. Expansion of Educational Pathways
Over the past few decades, the midwifery education landscape in the US has transformed significantly. Accredited midwifery programs have expanded to include direct-entry programs that allow individuals to enter midwifery without prior nursing experience. These programs typically offer a combination of didactic and clinical training.


Expanding educational pathways beyond the traditional nurse-midwife model has increased access to midwifery for individuals with diverse backgrounds and varied educational experiences. By providing options for direct entry into midwifery, this development has helped bridge the gap between supply and demand for midwifery care, especially in underserved areas.

III. Advocacy for Midwifery Integration
Throughout the history of the Certified Midwife movement, midwifery advocates have played a crucial role in promoting midwifery integration into the healthcare system. These advocates have highlighted the expertise and unique approach of midwives, working to reshape the perception of midwifery among policymakers, healthcare professionals, and the public.


The advocacy efforts have been important for midwifery as they have worked to counteract misconceptions, stereotypes, and biases against midwifery that have historically hindered its acceptance. By promoting midwifery integration, these advocacy efforts have contributed to raising awareness about the benefits of midwifery care, including better birth outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness.

IV. Community-Based Models of Care
Community-based models of midwifery care have gained traction within the Certified Midwife movement. These models emphasize the importance of continuity of care and the development of trusting relationships between midwives and their clients. They often involve midwifery-led birth centers, home births, or collaborative care models within hospitals.


Community-based models of care have addressed the growing demand for personalized, holistic care options. By fostering relationships and empowering individuals throughout the childbirth process, these models have provided an alternative to the more impersonal and intervention-heavy delivery practices often associated with hospital settings. Midwifery-led birth centers and home births have been shown to be associated with lower intervention rates and increased patient satisfaction.

V. Challenges and Barriers
Despite the progress made by the Certified Midwife movement, barriers remain that impede the full integration of midwifery care into the healthcare system. These barriers include limited insurance coverage, state regulations that restrict midwifery practice, the influence of medical dominance, and misconceptions about the safety and quality of midwifery care.


The presence of these barriers underscores the ongoing need for advocacy and policy changes to support the growth and sustainability of midwifery practice. Addressing these challenges is crucial to ensure that women have access to a range of options in maternity care and to promote evidence-based, woman-centered care that is sensitive to individual needs and preferences.

The Certified Midwife movement in the US has experienced significant changes, circumstances, and happenings since its inception. These developments, including the creation of the CM credential, the expansion of educational pathways, advocacy for integration, community-based models of care, and the identification of barriers, have shaped the midwifery profession. Understanding the importance of these changes is essential in continuing to promote midwifery as a vital part of the healthcare system, offering personalized, evidence-based care that aligns with the needs and desires of childbearing individuals.