The overall goal of the Session Long Project is to examine health care delivery in the United States from a strategic perspective. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or in short Affordable Care Act, changed the landscape of the health care industry. For this assignment, read the article “Information asymmetries and risk management in healthcare markets: The U.S. Affordable Care Act (ACA) in retrospect” by Mendoza, and write a paper to respond to the following questions: 1. Discuss the “moral theory” contained in this article. 2. Explain whether you agree or disagree with the author that the ACA was an answer to health care accessibility. 3. Explain whether you believe or do not believe that ACA will improve patient care. 4. Discuss what you think President Trump should do with the ACA. 5. Discuss what strategies you would recommend to deal with economic realities of health care based on your own research. Length: Submit a 3-page paper, not including the cover page and the reference list. Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it

Title: Analyzing the Moral Theory, Accessibility, and Patient Care in the Affordable Care Act


The United States healthcare system has witnessed extensive changes in recent years due to the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA aimed to address the information asymmetries and risk management issues in healthcare markets. This paper critically examines an article titled “Information asymmetries and risk management in healthcare markets: The U.S. Affordable Care Act (ACA) in retrospect” by Mendoza. The objective is to discuss the moral theory presented in the article, evaluate whether the ACA improved health care accessibility, assess its impact on patient care, and recommend strategies to deal with economic realities of healthcare.

Moral Theory in the Article:

The article highlights the moral theory underpinning the ACA by examining the principles of justice and fairness in healthcare. According to the author, the ACA was founded on the principle that access to healthcare is a fundamental right, rather than a privilege limited to the wealthy. It emphasized the idea of distributive justice, aiming to distribute healthcare resources equitably. The ACA’s moral theory reflects the belief that society as a whole should bear the responsibility for providing access to healthcare, particularly for vulnerable and marginalized populations.

The author argues that the ACA was an embodiment of a utilitarian moral theory, focusing on maximizing overall social welfare rather than individual preferences or market forces. By expanding access to healthcare through insurance coverage and subsidies, the ACA aimed to improve societal well-being and reduce inequities in healthcare outcomes. It sought to address the information asymmetries and risk management issues prevalent in the healthcare market, with the objective of ensuring fair and affordable access to necessary care.

Agreeing or Disagreeing with the ACA as an Answer to Health Care Accessibility:

The question of whether the ACA served as an effective answer to health care accessibility is subjective and open to interpretation. While the ACA expanded health insurance coverage to millions of previously uninsured individuals, it also faced challenges and limitations. It is important to acknowledge that the ACA improved accessibility for many by eliminating pre-existing conditions clauses and establishing health insurance marketplaces. However, it did not entirely resolve the issue of affordability for all individuals.

One aspect of the ACA that generated debate was the individual mandate, which required individuals to have health insurance or face penalties. Proponents argued that this mandate was necessary to ensure a diverse risk pool and spread costs across a broader population. Critics, on the other hand, viewed it as an infringement on individual liberties and advocated for a more market-driven approach.

Improvement in Patient Care due to ACA:

Determining whether the ACA has improved patient care requires a comprehensive evaluation of various factors. On one hand, the ACA had provisions aimed at enhancing the quality and coordination of care, such as the introduction of accountable care organizations (ACOs) and initiatives to promote electronic health record adoption. These initiatives were intended to improve patient outcomes by fostering greater collaboration among healthcare providers and enhancing the efficiency of care delivery.

However, it is important to recognize that the ACA’s impact on patient care is complex and multifaceted. While some studies have shown improvements in certain outcome measures, others have highlighted challenges and unintended consequences. For instance, there have been concerns about potential disruptions in provider networks and increased wait times for specialist care due to an influx of newly insured patients.

Recommendations for President Trump regarding the ACA:

As President Trump considers the future of the ACA, it is crucial to approach the matter strategically and consider the potential consequences of different policy decisions. One option is to repeal and replace the ACA with an alternative healthcare reform plan that addresses the shortcomings identified during its implementation. This approach would require careful consideration of the moral implications and potential impacts on accessibility and patient care.

Another strategy could involve revising specific aspects of the ACA to enhance its effectiveness while mitigating potential negative consequences. For instance, focusing on measures to increase competition among insurance providers and exploring innovative payment models that reward value-based care could lead to improvements in both accessibility and patient care.

Strategies for Dealing with Economic Realities of Healthcare:

Dealing with the economic realities of healthcare requires a multifaceted approach that addresses both cost containment and resource allocation. One essential strategy involves focusing on preventive care and early intervention to reduce the burden of chronic diseases and promote population health. Investing in research and technological innovation can also yield long-term cost savings and improve the quality of care.

Additionally, policies should incentivize care coordination and integration to reduce duplicative services and unnecessary healthcare utilization. Promoting transparency in pricing and outcomes can empower patients to make informed decisions and foster competition among providers. Finally, addressing the rising costs of pharmaceuticals through negotiation and pricing reforms represents a crucial step towards achieving sustainable financial models within the healthcare system.


In conclusion, the ACA represents a significant milestone in the history of healthcare reform in the United States. The moral theory underlying the ACA emphasizes the principles of justice, fairness, and societal responsibility. While the ACA expanded accessibility and addressed some issues related to patient care, it also encountered challenges and limitations. As the future of the ACA remains uncertain, strategic decisions must consider the moral implications, accessibility concerns, and patient care outcomes. Moreover, addressing the economic realities of healthcare requires a comprehensive approach encompassing preventive care, care coordination, transparency, and prudent resource allocation.