The 1999 landmark study titled “To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System” highlighted the unacceptably high incidence of U.S. medical errors and put forth recommendations to improve patient safety. Since its publication, the recommendations in “To Err Is Human’ have guided significant changes in nursing practice in the United States. In this Discussion, you will review these recommendations and consider the role of health information technology in helping address concerns presented in the report.


The 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report titled “To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System” shed light on the alarming rate of medical errors in the United States and proposed strategies to enhance patient safety. This seminal report has had a profound impact on nursing practice, leading to significant changes in healthcare systems. One area that has greatly benefited from the recommendations in this report is the integration of health information technology (HIT) into nursing practice. HIT has the potential to address many of the concerns raised in the “To Err Is Human” report and improve patient safety. In this discussion, we will examine the recommendations from the report and explore the role of HIT in addressing these concerns.

Recommendations from the “To Err Is Human” Report

The “To Err Is Human” report presented several recommendations to enhance patient safety in the healthcare system. These recommendations include:

1. Establishing a National Center for Patient Safety: The report suggested the establishment of a national organization to coordinate and facilitate efforts to improve patient safety. This center would serve as a central hub for creating and disseminating best practices, conducting research, and promoting collaboration among healthcare providers. The integration of HIT can greatly support the functions of this center by providing a platform for sharing information and promoting collaboration among healthcare providers.

2. Implementing mandatory reporting of medical errors: The report recommended the implementation of a mandatory reporting system for medical errors. This system would allow healthcare providers to report errors without fear of retribution, facilitating the identification of patterns and trends in errors. HIT can play a vital role in this recommendation by providing a standardized system for reporting errors, ensuring accurate and comprehensive documentation, and facilitating the analysis of error data to identify areas for improvement.

3. Developing and implementing evidence-based guidelines and protocols: The report stressed the importance of evidence-based guidelines and protocols to standardize healthcare practices and reduce errors. HIT can assist in this recommendation by providing easy access to evidence-based guidelines and protocols at the point of care. With the integration of electronic health records (EHRs) and decision support systems, nurses can access the most up-to-date guidelines and protocols, reducing the likelihood of errors and improving patient outcomes.

4. Enhancing education and training of healthcare professionals: The report emphasized the need for ongoing education and training of healthcare professionals to improve patient safety. HIT can support this recommendation by providing online resources, continuing education modules, and simulation programs to enhance the knowledge and skills of healthcare professionals. Additionally, HIT can facilitate just-in-time training by providing real-time access to relevant information and resources at the point of care.

Role of Health Information Technology in Addressing Concerns

Health information technology has the potential to address many of the concerns raised in the “To Err Is Human” report and improve patient safety. By integrating HIT into nursing practice, healthcare providers can benefit from the following:

1. Standardized documentation: HIT allows for standardized documentation, ensuring that critical patient information is accurately captured and readily accessible. This promotes continuity of care and reduces the likelihood of errors due to missing or incomplete information.

2. Decision support systems: HIT can integrate decision support systems into nursing practice, providing real-time guidance and alerts based on best practices and evidence-based guidelines. This reduces the risk of medication errors, adverse events, and other preventable errors.

3. Electronic health records: EHRs enable the seamless sharing of patient information across healthcare settings, ensuring that healthcare providers have access to comprehensive and up-to-date patient information. This reduces the risk of errors due to incomplete or outdated information and improves communication and collaboration among healthcare teams.

4. Medication management: HIT can support medication safety by incorporating barcoding technology, automated medication dispensing systems, and electronic prescribing. These technologies help prevent medication errors, such as administration of the wrong medication or dosage, by providing safeguards and alerts.

5. Data analysis and surveillance: HIT allows for the collection and analysis of data on errors, adverse events, and near misses. By analyzing this data, healthcare organizations can identify patterns and trends, implement targeted interventions, and continuously monitor the effectiveness of patient safety initiatives.


The “To Err Is Human” report has served as a catalyst for change in nursing practice, emphasizing the importance of improving patient safety. Health information technology offers significant opportunities to address the concerns raised in the report by promoting standardized documentation, providing decision support, enhancing communication and collaboration, preventing medication errors, and enabling data analysis. By integrating HIT into nursing practice, healthcare providers can enhance patient safety, reduce medical errors, and improve patient outcomes.