Report. Write a 8-10 page APA formatted paper, with references, including: • Description of patient • Assessment tools used and summary of findings • Health promotion focus, rationale for selection, and desired outcome • HP2020: Identify 1-3 specific Healthy People 2020 objectives that relate to your patient’s health promotion focus • Readiness to Change: Identify stage of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) that patient was in at beginning (and end, if changed) of semester, and rationale for decision • Pender’s Health Promotion Model: Describe all major facets as related to your patient. Discuss barriers and cues to action as defined in the HPM • Description of patient’s desired outcome with short-term, intermediate, and long-term SMART behavioral goals set to achieve outcome • Description of 3 evidence-based interventions (from peer-reviewed journals) shared with your patient. • Summary of follow-up with patient over the semester • Summary of patient’s progress toward SMART goals, including barriers and how they were addressed • Summary of your experience as health coach. Include major learning points and application of new learning to your nursing practice

Title: Health Promotion and Patient Engagement: A Case Study Analysis

Introduction

Health promotion plays a pivotal role in improving the well-being of individuals, communities, and society as a whole. In this report, we will examine a case study involving a patient and analyze their health status, assessment tools used, health promotion focus, and the desired outcome. Furthermore, we will explore the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) in understanding the patient’s readiness to change and the barriers and cues to action. Additionally, evidence-based interventions, follow-up with the patient, and the personal experience of the health coach will be discussed.

Description of the Patient

The patient under consideration is a 38-year-old male, Mr. Johnson, who presents with a diagnosis of obesity. He has a body mass index (BMI) of 35, exceeding the threshold for obesity. Mr. Johnson has a sedentary lifestyle and consumes a diet high in processed foods and sugars. He has no known comorbidities, but his family history includes cases of hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

Assessment Tools Used and Summary of Findings

To gain a comprehensive understanding of Mr. Johnson’s health status, several assessment tools were employed. These included a medical history questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory tests. The medical history revealed a lack of regular exercise, poor dietary habits, and a family history of chronic conditions. The physical examination indicated increased body weight, particularly around the waist, and a lack of muscle tone. Laboratory tests revealed elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Health Promotion Focus, Rationale for Selection, and Desired Outcome

The health promotion focus for Mr. Johnson revolves around weight management and adopting a healthier lifestyle. Obesity poses significant health risks, including an increased likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancers. By addressing weight management, Mr. Johnson’s overall health can be improved, thereby reducing the risk of future complications.

The rationale for selecting weight management as the health promotion focus is grounded in evidence-based research. Numerous studies have demonstrated that even modest weight loss can lead to significant improvements in cardiovascular health, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, weight management interventions have been shown to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

The desired outcome for Mr. Johnson is to reduce his BMI from 35 to a healthier range (between 20 and 25) and to achieve a healthy body weight. This outcome will be assessed through regular measurements of weight, BMI, waist circumference, and body composition. Moreover, changes in laboratory markers like cholesterol and triglyceride levels will be monitored to assess improvements in metabolic status.

HP2020 Objectives Related to the Patient’s Health Promotion Focus

The Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) initiative provides a comprehensive framework for improving the nation’s health. Three specific objectives within HP2020 that align with Mr. Johnson’s health promotion focus are:

Objective 1: Reduce the prevalence of obesity among adults in the United States.
Objective 2: Increase the proportion of adults who engage in regular physical activity.
Objective 3: Increase the proportion of adults who consume a healthy diet.

These objectives directly address the key components of Mr. Johnson’s health promotion focus, as they emphasize the reduction of obesity, encouragement of regular physical activity, and adoption of a healthy diet. By striving towards these objectives, substantial progress can be made in improving Mr. Johnson’s health and well-being.

Readiness to Change and the Transtheoretical Model (TTM)

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM), developed by Prochaska and DiClemente, provides a framework for understanding behavior change. It proposes that individuals progress through different stages of change, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.

At the beginning of the semester, Mr. Johnson was in the pre-contemplation stage. He lacked awareness of the health risks associated with his current lifestyle and had not yet considered making any changes. This stage is characterized by a lack of intention to take action within the foreseeable future.

Rationale for this decision is based on the patient’s statements during the initial assessment. Mr. Johnson expressed minimal concern regarding his weight and indicated that he was satisfied with his current lifestyle. He demonstrated limited knowledge about the potential health consequences of obesity and had not actively sought information on healthy eating or exercise.

Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM)

Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) provides a theoretical framework for understanding the factors influencing individual health behavior. It addresses the interplay between individual characteristics, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and the environmental context, in promoting health-enhancing behaviors.

Major facets of Pender’s HPM that are relevant to Mr. Johnson’s case include individual characteristics such as perceived self-efficacy, benefits and barriers to adopting health-promoting behaviors, and cues to action. Perceived self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in their ability to undertake and succeed in behavior change efforts. In Mr. Johnson’s case, enhancing his self-efficacy will be crucial in motivating him to adopt healthier habits.

Barriers to change, as defined in the HPM, may include lack of social support, limited access to healthy foods, sedentary lifestyle, and negative emotions related to making lifestyle modifications. Cues to action, on the other hand, can encompass health education, advice from healthcare professionals, and personal experiences that prompt individuals to engage in health-promoting behaviors.

(To be continued…)