Question 1 Quantitative research can be described as Objective and formal Subjective and formal Objective and informal Subjective and informal Question 2 A quantitative research study must have ratio level data must have at least interval level data uses participant observation uses standardized measures Question 3 The blueprint for quantitative studies is termed research design research goal research objective research process Question 4 Methods to collect data in a descriptive quantitative study could include all but

Question 1: Quantitative research is often characterized as being objective and formal. This means that it aims to gather data that is measurable and provides numerical results, and it follows a structured and systematic approach to data collection and analysis. The focus of quantitative research is on gathering empirical evidence and testing hypotheses using statistical analysis. It aims to eliminate bias and subjectivity in data collection and interpretation and relies on objective measures.

Question 2: In order for a research study to be considered quantitative, it must have at least interval level data, but it doesn’t necessarily require ratio level data. Interval level data refers to measurements that have equal intervals between the values but don’t have a true zero point. For example, temperature measured in Fahrenheit or Celsius is considered interval level data. On the other hand, ratio level data has equal intervals between values and a true zero point. Examples of ratio level data include height, weight, or income. While ratio level data is preferred in quantitative research, studies can still be conducted based on interval level data.

In addition to the type of data, quantitative research typically uses standardized measures for data collection. Standardized measures are established tools or instruments that have been validated and tested for reliability and validity. These measures ensure consistency and accuracy in data collection across different contexts and participants. Examples of standardized measures include surveys, questionnaires, and scales.

Question 3: The blueprint for quantitative studies is referred to as the research design. The research design outlines the overall plan and structure of the research study. It serves as the framework for all aspects of the research process, including data collection, data analysis, and interpretation of results. The research design provides a roadmap for researchers to address their research questions or objectives and guides them in selecting appropriate methods and procedures.

Question 4: Methods used to collect data in a descriptive quantitative study can vary depending on the nature of the research question and the accessibility of the population under study. Descriptive quantitative studies aim to describe and summarize the characteristics of a population or phenomenon of interest. Examples of data collection methods in descriptive quantitative studies include surveys, interviews, observations, and archival research.

Surveys are a commonly used method in descriptive quantitative research. They involve administering a set of pre-determined questions to a sample of participants. Surveys can be conducted through various modes, such as face-to-face interviews, phone interviews, online surveys, or paper-based questionnaires. Surveys provide researchers with quantitative data that can be analyzed statistically to draw conclusions about the population being studied.

Interviews can also be used in descriptive quantitative research. Unlike surveys, interviews involve direct interaction between the researcher and the participant. Structured or semi-structured interviews can be used to gather quantitative data by asking participants a set of standardized questions. The responses can be coded and analyzed quantitatively. However, interviews often allow for more in-depth exploration of participants’ perspectives and experiences, which can provide richer qualitative data as well.

Observations can also be employed in descriptive quantitative research to systematically record and measure behaviors, events, or other phenomena of interest. An observational study can involve direct observations of participants in their natural environment or controlled settings. The data collected through observations can be quantified and statistically analyzed.

Archival research involves analyzing pre-existing data that has been collected for other purposes. Examples of archival data include historical records, governmental statistics, or organizational documents. Archival research can be valuable in descriptive quantitative studies as a cost-effective way to gather large amounts of data, but it is important to consider the limitations and potential biases of the data source.

In summary, descriptive quantitative research utilizes various methods to collect data, including surveys, interviews, observations, and archival research. The selection of specific data collection methods depends on the research question, accessibility of the population, and the type of data desired.