Question 1 A 52-year-old male IV drug user was diagnosed with hepatitis C 5 years ago He is now experiencing impaired blood clotting The nurse suspects a decrease in which of the following vitamins? a. K b. D c. E d. B12 Question 2 A 5-year-old male was diagnosed with normocytic-normochromic anemia Which of the following anemias does the nurse suspect the patient has? a. Sideroblastic anemia b. Hemolytic anemia c. Pernicious anemia d. Iron deficiency anemia Question 3

A 52-year-old male IV drug user with a diagnosis of hepatitis C is presenting with impaired blood clotting. The nurse suspects a decrease in vitamin K as the cause of these symptoms. Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting as it plays a key role in the synthesis of clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. When vitamin K levels are low, the body’s ability to form clots is impaired, leading to abnormal bleeding.

Vitamin K deficiency can occur due to various factors, including liver disease, malabsorption disorders, and certain medication use. In the case of a patient with hepatitis C and a history of IV drug use, liver disease may be a contributing factor. The liver is responsible for producing many of the proteins involved in blood clotting, including clotting factors that are dependent on vitamin K. Hepatitis C can lead to liver damage, which can impair the liver’s function and decrease the synthesis of these clotting factors.

Therefore, it is likely that the impaired blood clotting in this patient is due to a decrease in vitamin K levels caused by liver damage from hepatitis C. The nurse should further investigate potential liver dysfunction and consider interventions to address the underlying cause of the vitamin deficiency.

Moving on to question 2, a 5-year-old male has been diagnosed with normocytic-normochromic anemia. The nurse suspects that the patient has iron deficiency anemia. Normocytic-normochromic anemia is characterized by red blood cells that are normal in size (normocytic) and color (normochromic). Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and occurs when there is a deficiency of available iron for red blood cell production.

Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Without sufficient iron, the body cannot produce an adequate amount of normal red blood cells, resulting in anemia. Iron deficiency anemia can occur due to various factors, including inadequate dietary intake of iron, poor absorption of iron, or increased iron requirements.

In a 5-year-old male, iron deficiency anemia is particularly common due to rapid growth and development during this age. Since iron is needed for the production of new red blood cells, a child’s increased iron requirements may not be met by their diet alone. If the body’s iron stores are depleted and insufficient iron is available for red blood cell production, anemia can develop.

To confirm the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, further laboratory testing may be necessary. This can include measurement of serum ferritin levels, which reflect iron stores in the body, as well as other blood tests to assess red blood cell indices and iron markers.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment for iron deficiency anemia typically involves iron supplementation and dietary modifications. Iron supplements are commonly prescribed to replenish iron stores and facilitate red blood cell production. It is important to monitor the patient’s response to treatment and assess for any underlying causes of iron deficiency, such as gastrointestinal bleeding or chronic inflammation.

In conclusion, the nurse suspects vitamin K deficiency in the patient with impaired blood clotting due to hepatitis C, and iron deficiency anemia in the 5-year-old patient with normocytic-normochromic anemia. Further investigation and appropriate interventions should be implemented to address these deficiencies and improve patient outcomes.