1) The 2020 National Health Goals related to home care during pregnancy or childhood that nurses can help the nation achieve are outlined in the Healthy People 2020 initiative. This initiative sets specific objectives aimed at improving the health of individuals and communities in various areas, including maternal and child health. Two relevant goals that nurses can contribute to are:
a) Reduce infant mortality: One of the Healthy People 2020 goals is to reduce infant mortality rates. Nurses can play a crucial role in achieving this goal by providing prenatal care and education to pregnant women, promoting healthy behaviors such as proper nutrition, adequate exercise, and avoidance of harmful substances during pregnancy. Additionally, nurses can also support families in accessing resources for newborn care and provide postpartum follow-up to ensure the well-being of both the mother and the infant.
b) Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed: Breastfeeding has several health benefits for both infants and mothers, and is linked to a reduced risk of various diseases and improved overall health outcomes. Nurses can contribute to this goal by promoting breastfeeding education and support for pregnant women and new mothers. This may involve providing information on the benefits of breastfeeding, assisting with proper positioning and latching techniques, and addressing any concerns or challenges that mothers may face during the breastfeeding process.
– U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Healthy People 2020: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/maternal-infant-and-child-health
2) Family-centered care is an approach to healthcare that recognizes the importance of the family in the well-being and care of an individual, particularly in the context of healthcare and illness. It involves collaboration between healthcare providers and families in decision-making, respect for cultural and individual beliefs and values, and supporting the family’s active involvement in the care process. Family-centered care places a strong emphasis on creating a partnership between healthcare providers and families to ensure that care is tailored to the unique needs, preferences, and values of the family unit.
One key principle of family-centered care is the recognition that the family is the constant in a child’s life, and that healthcare should be provided in a manner that acknowledges and respects this continuity. This involves engaging families in care planning, providing education and support to families to enhance their understanding and ability to participate in care, and involving families in decision-making processes. Family-centered care also emphasizes open communication and collaboration between healthcare providers and families, with a focus on shared decision-making and partnership.
– Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care. (n.d.). The Core Concepts of Family-Centered Care. Retrieved from https://www.ipfcc.org/about/pfcc.html
3) Cultural diversity presents a variety of considerations and concerns in the field of nursing practice. Some common areas where cultural diversity intersects with nursing include language barriers, beliefs about health and illness, dietary preferences and restrictions, and cultural practices related to childbirth and child-rearing. It is important for nurses to recognize and respect the cultural diversity of their patients to provide culturally competent care.
One area of concern is communication and language barriers. Nurses need to be aware of potential language barriers and ensure accurate and effective communication with patients and their families. This may involve utilizing interpreter services or language resources to facilitate understanding and ensure that important health information is properly conveyed.
Beliefs about health and illness can also vary significantly across different cultures. Nurses should be sensitive to these beliefs and avoid imposing their own cultural perspectives on patients. Instead, they should engage in open and respectful dialogue to understand and incorporate patient preferences and values into the care plan.
Dietary preferences and restrictions are another important consideration in culturally diverse nursing practice. Nurses should be knowledgeable about the dietary practices of different cultural groups and collaborate with patients and their families to accommodate these preferences within the context of medical requirements and restrictions.
Cultural practices related to childbirth and child-rearing may also vary among different cultural groups. For example, some cultures have specific rituals or customs surrounding childbirth or practices related to infant care. Nurses should be respectful and supportive of these cultural practices, as long as they do not pose any harm to the health and well-being of the individuals involved.
– Andrews, M. M., & Boyle, J. S. (2016). Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice. FA Davis.
– Douglas, M., & Pacquiao, D. (2016). Cultural Competence in Caring for Patients from Diverse Backgrounds. In Cultural Competencies for Nurses: Impact on Health and Illness (pp. 79-108). Springer Publishing Company.