Please present an essay discussing the Purnell model its framework, assumptions which the model is based and how this model helps us to provide cultural competence health care. You must present a minimum of two evidence-based references no older than 5 years to sustained your essay.  A minimum of 2 replies to any of your peers sustained with the proper references are required and a minimum of 500 words excluding the first and reference page. plagiarism free APA style

The Purnell model is a conceptual framework that provides a comprehensive understanding of cultural competence in healthcare. This model emphasizes the importance of cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, and cultural respect in delivering effective and equitable healthcare services to individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. Developed by Dr. Larry D. Purnell, this model serves as a guide for healthcare professionals to assess and provide culturally competent care.

The framework of the Purnell model consists of twelve domains, which are classified into two levels. The first level, called the “global level,” includes the cultural, subcultural, and social structure domains. These domains focus on macro-level factors that shape an individual’s cultural identity, such as their nationality, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The second level, called the “specific level,” includes the ethnohistory, environmental control, biological variations, communication, space, time, social organization, and cultural values and practices domains. These domains delve into the micro-level factors that influence an individual’s health beliefs, healthcare practices, and interactions with healthcare providers.

One of the key assumptions underlying the Purnell model is the recognition of culture as a broad concept. Culture encompasses not only nationality and ethnicity but also other factors such as age, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, and disability status. By acknowledging the multifaceted nature of culture, healthcare providers can avoid making assumptions or generalizations about individuals based solely on their visible cultural attributes. This assumption is supported by an evidence-based study conducted by Saha et al. (2013), which highlights the importance of understanding patient’s cultural and social contexts in delivering patient-centered care.

Another assumption of the Purnell model is that cultural competence is a dynamic process that requires continuous learning and self-reflection. Healthcare providers must strive to enhance their cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills throughout their careers to effectively care for patients from diverse backgrounds. This assumption aligns with the findings of a study by Truong et al. (2019), which emphasizes the need for ongoing cultural competency training to bridge the gap between healthcare providers’ knowledge and patients’ cultural needs.

The Purnell model helps healthcare providers provide culturally competent care by providing a structured approach to assess and address patients’ diverse cultural needs. By utilizing the twelve domains of the model, healthcare providers can gather comprehensive information about patients’ cultural background, beliefs, and practices. This information can then be used to tailor healthcare services and interventions to meet patients’ unique needs and preferences, thereby improving patient outcomes and satisfaction.

For example, the domain of communication in the Purnell model emphasizes the importance of understanding patients’ preferred language, communication style, and nonverbal cues. By recognizing and respecting patients’ communication preferences, healthcare providers can establish effective rapport and facilitate clear and accurate information exchange. This, in turn, can enhance patients’ understanding of their health conditions, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare experience. A study by Diamond et al. (2016) supports the significance of effective cross-cultural communication in healthcare, as it has been linked to improved patient safety, patient-provider trust, and patient satisfaction.

The Purnell model also promotes cultural competence through its focus on cultural values and practices. By acknowledging and respecting patients’ cultural values, healthcare providers can ensure that healthcare interventions align with patients’ belief systems and preferences. For instance, the model emphasizes the need to be aware of patients’ religious beliefs and dietary restrictions. By accommodating these beliefs, healthcare providers can develop culturally appropriate care plans and facilitate ethical decision-making. An evidence-based study conducted by Galbraith et al. (2015) highlights the significance of addressing patients’ cultural values when providing end-of-life care, as it promotes dignity and respect for patients and their families.

In conclusion, the Purnell model offers a comprehensive framework for cultural competence in healthcare. Its twelve domains provide healthcare providers with a structured approach to understand and address patients’ diverse cultural needs and preferences. By recognizing culture as a broad concept and acknowledging cultural competence as a dynamic process, healthcare providers can deliver equitable and effective healthcare services to individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. The model’s emphasis on communication and cultural values and practices further enhances the provision of culturally competent care. By incorporating the principles of the Purnell model into clinical practice, healthcare providers can contribute to the reduction of healthcare disparities and improve patient outcomes.