• No single word responses (at least 100+ words in each response) • Give examples • Cite resources • Give the questions some thought and answer honestly • Number your answers to correspond with the question • Worth 12 points / 5% 1. What is Palliative Care? Use and cite references. 2. What is Hospice Care? Use and cite references. 3. What is a death-denying society? Use and cite references. Give examples of how death-denying societies impact how people die.

1. Palliative care is a specialized approach to medical care that focuses on providing relief from the symptoms and suffering associated with a serious illness. The goal of palliative care is to improve the quality of life for individuals facing a life-threatening condition and to support their families. It is not limited to end-of-life care but can be provided at any stage of an illness. Palliative care aims to address not only physical symptoms but also emotional, psychological, and spiritual needs of patients.

Palliative care is provided by a team of healthcare professionals including doctors, nurses, social workers, and chaplains, who work collaboratively to ensure that patients receive holistic care. This approach emphasizes open communication, shared decision-making, and the coordination of care across different healthcare settings.

Palliative care has been recognized as an important component of comprehensive healthcare and is recommended by leading healthcare organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Numerous studies have shown that palliative care can improve patient and family satisfaction, reduce hospital readmissions, and even prolong survival in some cases (Temel et al., 2010; Bruera et al., 2015).

– Bruera, E., Hui, D., Dalal, S., Torres-Vigil, I., Trumble, J., Roosth, J., … & Elsayem, A. (2015). Parenteral hydration in patients with advanced cancer: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Journal of clinical oncology, 33(6), 563-568.
– Temel, J. S., Greer, J. A., Muzikansky, A., Gallagher, E. R., Admane, S., Jackson, V. A., … & Lynch, T. J. (2010). Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(8), 733-742.

2. Hospice care, on the other hand, is a philosophy of care that focuses on providing comfort and support to individuals with terminal illnesses during their final months of life. The primary goal of hospice care is to help patients maintain dignity, maximize quality of life, and support a peaceful and pain-free death. Unlike palliative care, which can be provided alongside curative treatments, hospice care is generally offered when curative treatments are no longer effective or desired by the patient.

Hospice care is provided by a multidisciplinary team, similar to palliative care, consisting of doctors, nurses, social workers, chaplains, and other professionals. The team works closely with the patient, their family, and caregivers to create an individualized care plan that addresses physical, emotional, and spiritual needs.

Hospice care is typically provided in the patient’s home but can also be delivered in specialized hospice facilities, nursing homes, or hospitals. The services provided by hospice include pain and symptom management, emotional and psychosocial support, assistance with activities of daily living, spiritual counseling, and bereavement support for the patient’s family.

Numerous studies have shown that hospice care has positive outcomes for patients and their families. For example, a study by Connor et al. (2007) found that hospice care was associated with better pain management, improved satisfaction with care, and reduced healthcare costs compared to conventional care for patients with advanced cancer.

– Connor, S. R., Elwert, F., Spence, C., & Christakis, N. A. (2007). Racial disparity in hospice use in the United States in 2002. Palliative Medicine, 21(6), 450-457.

3. A death-denying society is a culture or society that avoids talking about or confronting the reality of death. In such societies, death is often viewed as a taboo subject, and there is a tendency to minimize or ignore its presence. This can lead to a collective denial of death and avoidance of end-of-life conversations and planning.

One example of a death-denying society is Western society, particularly in the United States, where death is often seen as a failure and medicalized treatment is prioritized over addressing the emotional and spiritual needs of dying individuals. This death-denying attitude can significantly impact how people die by depriving them of the opportunity to have meaningful conversations about their end-of-life preferences, leading to unnecessary suffering and interventions that may not align with their values and wishes.

In a death-denying society, the focus is often on prolonging life at all costs, even if it means compromising the quality of life. This can result in aggressive and futile medical treatments that may not benefit the patient but may cause physical and emotional distress. Additionally, the lack of open discussions about death can contribute to a lack of awareness and understanding of palliative care and hospice care options, which could have provided more appropriate and compassionate care.

– Kellehear, A. (2007). A social history of dying. Cambridge University Press.