MSN degree APA format 3 peer review references from Walden University Library In clinical settings, patients often present with various respiratory symptoms, such as congestion, coughing, and wheezing. While identifying a symptom’s underlying illness can be challenging, it is essential because even basic symptoms, such as persistent coughing, can be a sign of a more severe disorder. Advanced practice nurses must be able to differentiate between moderate and severe respiratory disorders, as well as to properly assist physicians in the diagnosis and prescription of drug treatments for patients. For this reason, it is necessary for you to have an understanding of the pathophysiology of respiratory disorders and patient factors that impact drug treatment. a description of the respiratory disorder you selected, including its pathophysiology and types of drugs that would be prescribed to treat patients. Then, explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the disorder as well as the effects of prescribed drugs. Finally, explain how you would facilitate the care of the patient with the patient’s care team. Purchase the answer to view it

Respiratory disorders encompass a wide range of conditions that affect the lungs and breathing system. One common respiratory disorder that will be discussed in this paper is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The most common risk factor for COPD is smoking, although exposure to environmental pollution and genetic factors also play a role (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD], 2019).

The pathophysiology of COPD involves chronic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and structural changes in the airways and lung tissue. When exposed to irritants, such as cigarette smoke, the lungs produce an inflammatory response. This leads to the release of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, which attract immune cells and result in inflammation. The inflammation causes bronchial hyperresponsiveness, narrowing of the airways, and increased mucus production. Over time, these changes lead to the destruction of lung tissue and the development of emphysema, a type of COPD characterized by the enlargement of air spaces and loss of elasticity in the lungs (Celli et al., 2008).

The pharmacological treatment of COPD aims to reduce symptoms, improve lung function, and prevent exacerbations. The main classes of drugs prescribed for COPD include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitors. Bronchodilators, such as beta-agonists and anticholinergics, work by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways and improving airflow. These drugs can be administered via inhalation, which allows for targeted delivery to the lungs. Corticosteroids, on the other hand, have anti-inflammatory effects and help reduce airway inflammation. They can be given either systemically or via inhalation. PDE-4 inhibitors, like roflumilast, reduce inflammation by inhibiting the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which plays a role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses in the lungs (Vestbo et al., 2017).

The factor chosen to discuss how it impacts the pathophysiology of COPD and the effects of prescribed drugs is smoking. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD, with approximately 80-90% of cases attributed to cigarette smoking (GOLD, 2019). Smoking exposes the lungs to numerous harmful substances, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, and various carcinogens. These substances can directly damage the airways and lung tissue, leading to inflammation and oxidative stress. Smoking also impairs the muco-ciliary clearance mechanism, which is responsible for clearing mucus and debris from the airways. This impairment increases mucus production and retention, further contributing to airway obstruction and inflammation (Vestbo et al., 2017).

The presence of smoking in COPD patients not only worsens the underlying inflammation and structural changes in the lungs but also affects the efficacy of drug treatments. Studies have shown that smoking can decrease the effectiveness of bronchodilators. One possible mechanism for this is the downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in the airways, which reduces the response to beta-agonists. Similarly, smoking-induced inflammation can decrease the effectiveness of corticosteroids by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptors. This leads to a decreased anti-inflammatory effect and a reduced response to corticosteroid therapy (Shapiro et al., 2014).

To facilitate the care of a patient with COPD in collaboration with the patient’s care team, several strategies can be employed. First and foremost, smoking cessation should be prioritized. Offering smoking cessation counseling and support can greatly benefit patients by reducing their exposure to harmful substances and slowing the progression of their disease. Additionally, it is essential to educate patients and their families about the importance of medication adherence and proper inhaler technique. Inhaler devices can be complex, and incorrect use may result in poor drug delivery and suboptimal symptom relief. Regular follow-up visits should be scheduled to monitor the patient’s symptoms, lung function, and response to treatment. This allows for adjustments to the treatment plan, if necessary. Finally, collaboration with other healthcare professionals, such as pulmonologists, respiratory therapists, and pharmacists, can provide multidisciplinary care and ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient (Walters et al., 2014).