Identify several key points in the Tuskegee Syphilis study, Willowbrook Study, and crisis at Johns Hopkins University that raise ethical issues. If you were to conduct a similar research study, what steps would you take to protect the rights and ensure the safety of the human subjects. -Please conduct research on the following studies and answer the 2 questions above. Please answer using a minimum of 140 words and use at least 2 references. Use proper apa 7th edition format

Title: Ethical Issues and Protections in Human Research Studies: Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Willowbrook Study, and Crisis at Johns Hopkins University

Introduction:
In the history of human research, several experiments have raised substantial ethical concerns. This analysis will examine three notable cases: the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, the Willowbrook Study, and the crisis at Johns Hopkins University. These studies highlight the need for robust ethical practices in research involving human subjects.

Key Points in Tuskegee Syphilis Study:
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service from 1932 to 1972, aimed to observe the progression of untreated syphilis in African-American men. Several ethical issues emerged from this study:

1. Lack of informed consent: Participants were not adequately informed about the nature, risks, or benefits of the study. Despite the availability of effective treatment, it was withheld, depriving them of an opportunity for medical intervention.

2. Withholding of treatment: Participants were deliberately denied access to penicillin, even after it became an established cure for syphilis. This prolonged suffering and caused needless harm to the participants.

3. Researcher misconduct: The study continued even after the Nuremberg Code (1949) and the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) were established, both of which emphasized the importance of informed consent and the welfare of human subjects.

Key Points in Willowbrook Study:
The Willowbrook Study, conducted from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, aimed to examine the effects of hepatitis on mentally disabled children residing in a state institution. Ethical issues arising from this study include:

1. Exploitation of vulnerable populations: The study involved mentally disabled children who lacked the capacity to give informed consent. Their participation may not have been voluntary, as their parents were often coerced into agreeing to their involvement by linking it to their child’s admission to the institution.

2. Exposure to harm: Children were intentionally infected with the hepatitis virus through the administration of oral vaccine or injection, exposing them to the risk of a potentially life-threatening disease.

3. Public interest versus individual rights: The study sought to understand the natural history of hepatitis and develop a preventive vaccine. However, the interests of the population overshadowed the individual rights and welfare of the participants.

Key Points in Crisis at Johns Hopkins University:
In 2001, a crisis erupted at Johns Hopkins University when it was revealed that Dr. Robert E. Slavin, a researcher, had violated ethical standards in his research involving elementary school students. Key ethical issues raised by this incident include:

1. Failure to obtain informed consent: Parents and guardians of the students were not appropriately informed about the study’s objectives, procedures, or potential risks, resulting in a breach of the principles of informed consent.

2. Exploitation of vulnerable populations: The study was conducted in disadvantaged schools, where the students were more susceptible to participating for various reasons such as academic incentives, socio-economic pressures, or lack of available alternatives.

3. Inadequate oversight and accountability: The university failed to maintain effective oversight mechanisms to monitor the conduct of research studies, allowing unethical practices to persist.

Steps to Protect Rights and Ensure Safety:
To conduct a research study while prioritizing the rights and safety of human subjects, several steps can be taken:

1. Obtain informed consent: Prioritize informed consent by providing comprehensive and understandable information to participants. Ensure they have the autonomy to make informed decisions about their participation.

2. Prioritize participant welfare: Ensure adequate safeguards are in place to minimize physical, psychological, and social harms. Continually monitor the participants’ well-being during the study and provide necessary support services.

3. Assess and address power imbalances: Ensure that participants are not coerced or manipulated into participating in a study. Take steps to address power imbalances, particularly when working with vulnerable populations.

4. Ethical oversight: Establish rigorous ethical oversight mechanisms, such as institutional review boards (IRBs), to review and monitor research protocols to ensure compliance with ethical guidelines and regulations.

5. Continual ethics training: Provide ongoing ethics education and training for researchers involved in human research studies. This will enhance their understanding and application of ethical principles in the conduct of research.

References:
1. Jones, J. H. (1993). Bad blood: The Tuskegee syphilis experiment. University Press of Kentucky.
2. Reverby, S. M. (2009). Examining Tuskegee: The infamous syphilis study and its legacy. University of North Carolina Press.