I need help with these question 1. Write up CMP, CBC, UA – include normal range and what abnormal findings indicate for both HIGH and LOW values. Chest Xray and CT scan- uses for these diagnostic tests. 2. As the nurse you are caring for a patient with a Stage 2 wound on their coccyx. How as the nurse would you care for this patient?  (Include a description of the wound, nursing care-nutrition, dressing care for the wound, turning of patient, etc).

Question 1: Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Imaging

In the field of healthcare, several laboratory tests and diagnostic imaging techniques play a crucial role in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions. This response will focus on understanding the significance of three common laboratory tests – CMP (Comprehensive Metabolic Panel), CBC (Complete Blood Count), and UA (Urinalysis) – and two imaging techniques, Chest X-ray and CT scan. Additionally, we will discuss the normal ranges of these tests and what abnormal findings might indicate in terms of both high and low values.

1. CMP (Comprehensive Metabolic Panel):
CMP is a commonly ordered blood test that provides essential information about the overall metabolic functions of the body. It consists of multiple panels that assess various substances, including electrolytes, enzymes, proteins, and waste products. The following are the components of CMP along with their normal ranges and indications for abnormal values:

– Electrolytes:
– Sodium (Na+): Normal range: 135-145 mEq/L
– High values might indicate dehydration, renal dysfunction, or hormonal imbalances.
– Low values might suggest hyponatremia, congestive heart failure, or diarrhea.

– Potassium (K+): Normal range: 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
– High values might be indicative of kidney disease or potassium supplementation.
– Low values might indicate hypokalemia, which can result from vomiting, diarrhea, or certain medications.

– Chloride (Cl-): Normal range: 98-106 mEq/L
– High values might suggest dehydration or kidney dysfunction.
– Low values might indicate metabolic alkalosis or hyponatremia.

– Blood glucose: Normal range: 70-100 mg/dL
– High values might indicate diabetes mellitus or stress.
– Low values might indicate hypoglycemia, liver failure, or excessive insulin administration.

– Kidney Function:
– Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Normal range: 7-20 mg/dL
– High values might suggest kidney dysfunction or dehydration.
– Low values are uncommon but might indicate liver diseases or malnutrition.

– Creatinine: Normal range: 0.6-1.2 mg/dL (males), 0.5-1.1 mg/dL (females)
– High values might indicate impaired kidney function or muscle damage.
– Low values are less common but might suggest reduced muscle mass or liver diseases.

– Liver Function:
– Alanine Transaminase (ALT): Normal range: 7-55 IU/L (males), 7-45 IU/L (females)
– High values might indicate liver damage or hepatitis.
– Low values are less common.

– Aspartate Transaminase (AST): Normal range: 8-48 IU/L
– High values might suggest liver dysfunction or muscle damage.
– Low values are less common.

– Total Protein: Normal range: 6.0-8.3 g/dL
– High values might indicate dehydration or multiple myeloma.
– Low values might suggest liver or kidney diseases or malnutrition.

– Albumin: Normal range: 3.4-5.4 g/dL
– High values are less common.
– Low values might indicate liver or kidney diseases, malnutrition, or inflammation.

2. CBC (Complete Blood Count):
CBC is a widely used blood test that provides crucial information regarding the cellular components of the blood, including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. The following are the components of CBC along with their normal ranges and indications for abnormal values:

– Red Blood Cells:
– RBC count: Normal range: 4.5-5.5 million cells/mcL (males), 4.0-5.0 million cells/mcL (females)
– High values might indicate dehydration or polycythemia.
– Low values might suggest anemia or bleeding.

– Hemoglobin: Normal range: 13.5-17.5 g/dL (males), 12.0-15.5 g/dL (females)
– High values are less common.
– Low values might indicate anemia or blood loss.

– Hematocrit: Normal range: 38.8%-50.0% (males), 34.9%-44.5% (females)
– High values might suggest dehydration or polycythemia.
– Low values might indicate anemia or blood loss.

– White Blood Cells:
– WBC count: Normal range: 4,500-11,000 cells/mcL
– High values might indicate infection, inflammation, or leukemia.
– Low values might suggest bone marrow issues or immune deficiencies.

– Differential WBC count (percentage of different types of WBCs):
– Neutrophils: Normal range: 40%-60%
– High values might indicate bacterial infection or inflammation.
– Low values might suggest viral infection or aplastic anemia.

– Lymphocytes: Normal range: 20%-40%
– High values might indicate viral infection, leukemia, or lymphoma.
– Low values might suggest immunodeficiency or chemotherapy.

– Monocytes: Normal range: 2%-8%
– High values might indicate bacterial infection, tuberculosis, or chronic inflammation.
– Low values are less common.

– Eosinophils: Normal range: 1%-4%
– High values might suggest allergies, parasitic infections, or autoimmune diseases.
– Low values are less common.

– Basophils: Normal range: 0.5%-1%
– High values might suggest allergic reactions or chronic inflammation.
– Low values are less common.

– Platelets:
– Platelet count: Normal range: 150,000-400,000/mcL
– High values might indicate thrombocytosis or certain cancers.
– Low values might suggest thrombocytopenia or a bleeding disorder.