I – After reading chapters 13, 14, 15, answer the next question. Remember you need to answer one peer in each DQ. Discuss the characteristics and requirements that research tools should have on quantitative research to give validity to the study. Give some examples. II – Describe why you were to chose a specific method to select a sample over other methods. Defend the method you preferred. Remember you need to answer to one peer in each DQ

I. Research tools play a crucial role in quantitative research as they help in gathering data and analyzing it to draw valid conclusions. In order to ensure validity in a study, there are several characteristics and requirements that research tools should possess.

One important characteristic is reliability. Research tools should yield consistent results when used repeatedly under similar conditions. This helps to ensure that the measurements or observations being made are stable and not influenced by random factors. For example, if a questionnaire is used as a research tool, it should consistently measure the same constructs or variables.

Another characteristic is objectivity. Research tools should be free from bias or the influence of personal opinion or beliefs. They should allow for unbiased collection and analysis of data. For instance, in surveys, the questions should be phrased in a neutral manner to avoid leading responses in a certain direction.

Validity is also a key requirement for research tools. It refers to the extent to which a research tool measures what it intends to measure. There are different types of validity, such as content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity. Content validity ensures that the research tool adequately covers all relevant aspects of the research topic. Construct validity ensures that the research tool accurately measures the underlying constructs or variables of interest. Criterion validity assesses how well the research tool predicts or correlates with an external criterion. For example, if a test is used to measure intelligence, it should have high construct validity, meaning it truly assesses individuals’ cognitive abilities.

Additionally, research tools should have feasibility. They should be practical and easy to administer. They should not be too time-consuming or burdensome for the participants or researchers. This is important to ensure the collection of high-quality data without imposing excessive burden on participants or researchers. For instance, online surveys are often feasible research tools as they are convenient for participants and can reach a large sample size efficiently.

To enhance validity, researchers can use multiple research tools through a technique called triangulation. This involves using different methods or measures to collect data on the same phenomenon. Triangulation helps to verify and validate findings by comparing and corroborating different sources of data. For example, if a study aims to investigate students’ academic performance, researchers can use academic records, self-report questionnaires, and teacher evaluations as research tools to triangulate the data.

To summarize, research tools used in quantitative research should have characteristics such as reliability, objectivity, validity, and feasibility. Reliability ensures consistency of results, objectivity ensures unbiased data collection and analysis, validity ensures accurate measurement of constructs, and feasibility ensures practicality in the research process. By adhering to these characteristics and requirements, researchers can enhance the validity of their studies and generate reliable and meaningful results.

II. The method used to select a sample in research depends on various factors such as the research objectives, population size, resources available, and the level of representativeness required. In my case, I chose simple random sampling as the preferred method for sample selection.

Simple random sampling is a method where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample. This method is widely used because it ensures a fair representation of the population and minimizes bias. By randomly selecting participants, the sample is more likely to be representative of the entire population, increasing the generalizability of the findings.

Furthermore, simple random sampling is relatively easy to implement. It involves assigning a unique identifier to each member of the target population and using a random number generator or a randomization method to select the desired sample size. This method does not require extensive resources or complex sampling techniques, making it practical and cost-effective.

Another advantage of simple random sampling is that it allows for statistical analysis and inference. Since each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected, the sample can be considered as a random sample, allowing for the use of statistical tests to make inferences about the population. This increases the reliability and validity of the study findings.

However, it is important to acknowledge that simple random sampling does have limitations. For instance, it may not be suitable for small populations or when there is limited information or access to the population. In such cases, alternative sampling methods like stratified sampling or cluster sampling may be more appropriate.

In conclusion, the choice of the sample selection method depends on various factors, and in my case, I preferred simple random sampling due to its fairness, ease of implementation, and ability to yield statistically reliable results. However, it is important for researchers to carefully consider the characteristics of their population and the research objectives when selecting the appropriate sampling method. This ensures that the sample is representative and supports the validity of the study results.