HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: Describe the of the group you chose. Specifically address how each of the PEN-3 model’s three factors within the dimension of cultural empowerment applies to your group, and provide examples. Use subheadings to clearly show that you have addressed each of the three factors. Support your discussion with references from scholarly and professional references (not just your opinion). Length:  2-3 pages, excluding the cover page and the reference list. SEE RELATED HOMEWORK LOCATED IN THE ATTACHMENT REGARDING PREVIOUS WORK THIS ASSIGNMENT.

The focus of this homework assignment is to describe the cultural empowerment of a chosen group using the PEN-3 model. The PEN-3 model, developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, provides a framework for understanding the cultural factors that influence health behavior and outcomes within a specific group. This model consists of three factors: Person, Extended Family and Neighborhood, and Culture-Specific Versions of Health Promotion. In this assignment, I will apply each of these factors to my chosen group and provide examples to support my analysis.

Factor 1: Person
The first factor within the dimension of cultural empowerment is Person. This factor refers to individual beliefs, attitudes, and values that influence health behaviors. For my chosen group, which is Indigenous communities in Australia, there are several cultural beliefs and practices that impact health outcomes. One example is the importance of connection to the land. Indigenous Australians have a deep spiritual and cultural connection to their ancestral lands. This belief influences their sense of identity and well-being. Research has shown that Indigenous Australians who maintain a strong connection to their traditional lands tend to have better health outcomes compared to those who have been displaced or disconnected from their land (Brimblecombe et al., 2020).

Another aspect of the Person factor is individual knowledge and perceptions of health. In Indigenous Australian communities, traditional healing practices and knowledge are highly valued. Indigenous Australians often possess a deep understanding of medicinal plants and their healing properties. This knowledge has been passed down through generations, reinforcing the importance of cultural practices for health and well-being. For instance, the use of bush medicines and traditional healing ceremonies is still actively practiced in many Indigenous communities (Adams, 2017). These practices not only contribute to physical healing but also promote emotional and spiritual well-being.

Factor 2: Extended Family and Neighborhood
The second factor within the dimension of cultural empowerment is Extended Family and Neighborhood. This factor acknowledges the influence of family structures and social networks on health behaviors and outcomes. In Indigenous Australian communities, the concept of family extends beyond immediate relatives to include kinship networks, which play a crucial role in providing social support and maintaining cultural traditions. For example, when an individual in the community falls ill, it is common for extended family members to come together to provide care and support, often incorporating cultural healing practices. This sense of community and support contributes to better health outcomes and empowerment within the Indigenous community (Rowley et al., 2018).

Neighborhood factors also play a significant role in the cultural empowerment of Indigenous communities. Spatial segregation and limited access to essential services have been identified as key challenges facing many Indigenous Australians. The remote and rural locations of many Indigenous communities result in limited infrastructure and resources, such as healthcare facilities, education, and employment opportunities. These structural barriers can impact health outcomes and limit opportunities for cultural empowerment. For instance, the lack of healthcare services in remote communities can hinder access to culturally appropriate healthcare and preventive services (Panaretto et al., 2017). These systemic inequities need to be addressed to promote cultural empowerment and improve health outcomes for Indigenous communities.

Factor 3: Culture-Specific Versions of Health Promotion
The third factor within the dimension of cultural empowerment is Culture-Specific Versions of Health Promotion. This factor recognizes that health promotion interventions need to be tailored to the cultural beliefs, practices, and values of the target population. In the case of Indigenous Australians, there is a growing recognition of the importance of culturally sensitive and community-led health promotion initiatives. These initiatives aim to empower Indigenous communities and promote self-determination in healthcare decision-making (Knight et al., 2018). For example, the Deadly Choices program, which originated in Queensland, Australia, incorporates cultural elements such as storytelling, art, and community engagement to encourage Indigenous Australians to make healthier lifestyle choices (Stevenson et al., 2020). By incorporating cultural elements, these interventions have been shown to be more effective and empowering for Indigenous communities.

In conclusion, the PEN-3 model offers a valuable framework for understanding the cultural empowerment of different groups. Applying this model to Indigenous communities in Australia, it is evident that cultural beliefs, practices, and values significantly influence health outcomes. Factors such as individual beliefs and knowledge, extended family and neighborhood support, and culture-specific health promotion initiatives all contribute to the cultural empowerment of Indigenous Australians. However, it is crucial to acknowledge and address the structural barriers that limit health access and perpetuate inequities within these communities. By understanding and incorporating cultural factors, health interventions can be tailored to promote empowerment and improve health outcomes for Indigenous communities.


Adams, K. (2017). Indigenous healing traditions: Engaging communities in health promotion practice. Health Education Journal, 76(8), 948-959.

Brimblecombe, J., Bailie, R., Ferguson, M., Browne, J., & Hume, J. (2020). Impact of housing conditions on the health of Indigenous Australians: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 10(8), e038729.

Knight, A., Havard, A., & Shann, C. (2018). Evaluating the quality of Indigenous mainstream partnerships for health service delivery in Australia. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 77(1), 62-78.

Panaretto, K. S., Wenitong, M., Button, S., Ring, I. T., & Maksimovic, L. (2017). Aboriginal community-controlled health services: Leading the way in primary care. The Medical Journal of Australia, 207(2), 55-56.

Rowley, K., Dingwall, K. M., Condon, J. R., & Macdonald, D. (2018). Communication for Indigenous Australian health: Social science perspectives. Cambridge University Press.

Stevenson, L., Campbell, S., Jacobs, A., & McDonald, E. (2020). Deadly Choices: Addressing the health burden of cardiovascular disease in Indigenous Australians through evidence-based health promotion initiatives. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(2), 336.