Heart disease remains one of the top causes of mortality in the Unites States. Consider the various types of heart disease covered in class this week. For your discussion, complete these items: Use at least one scholarly source to support your findings. Examples of scholarly sources include academic journals, textbooks, reference texts, and CINAHL nursing guides. Be sure to cite your sources in-text and on a References page using APA format. I want two pages apart References


Heart disease is a complex condition that continues to be a leading cause of mortality in the United States. It encompasses a wide range of conditions, each of which affects the functioning of the heart and its ability to pump blood efficiently. This discussion will explore the various types of heart disease covered in class and provide an overview of their characteristics, causes, and management strategies. The information presented here is supported by scholarly sources, including academic journals and textbooks, to ensure accuracy and reliability.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

One of the most common types of heart disease is coronary artery disease (CAD), which occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked. This condition is characterized by the buildup of plaque within the arterial walls, resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Risk factors for CAD include smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity, diabetes, and a sedentary lifestyle (Mozaffarian et al., 2016). Management of CAD typically involves lifestyle modifications (such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet) and the use of medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood clot formation. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting may be required.

Heart Failure

Heart failure is another significant type of heart disease that occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively to meet the body’s needs. It can result from various underlying conditions, such as CAD, high blood pressure, heart valve disorders, or congenital heart defects. Heart failure is classified into two types: systolic heart failure, where the heart cannot contract forcefully enough to pump blood out of the chambers, and diastolic heart failure, where the heart cannot relax and fill with enough blood between contractions (Yancy et al., 2017). Treatment for heart failure involves a combination of medications to improve heart function, control symptoms, and manage fluid retention. Lifestyle modifications, such as limiting salt intake and engaging in regular physical activity, are also crucial in managing this condition.


Arrhythmias refer to irregular heart rhythms that can occur due to abnormalities in the electrical system of the heart. These abnormal rhythms may be too slow (bradycardia) or too fast (tachycardia), which can disrupt the heart’s normal pumping ability. Common types of arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, and supraventricular tachycardia. Risk factors for arrhythmias include age, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol abuse (Benjamin et al., 2017). Treatment for arrhythmias may involve medications to regulate heart rate and rhythm, implantation of devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, or procedures to restore the normal electrical conduction of the heart.

Valvular Heart Disease

Valvular heart disease refers to conditions that affect the valves of the heart, impairing their ability to regulate blood flow. These conditions may develop due to congenital defects, infections, or age-related degeneration. The most common valve disorders are aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and mitral valve prolapse. Symptoms can range from mild to severe, depending on the degree of valve dysfunction. Treatment options can include medications to manage symptoms, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve, or minimally invasive procedures such as transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) (Nishimura et al., 2020).


Benjamin, E. J., Blaha, M. J., Chiuve, S. E., Cushman, M., Das, S. R., Deo, R., … & Molecular, M. ((2017). Heart disease and stroke statistics-2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135(10), e146-e603.

Mozaffarian, D., Benjamin, E. J., Go, A. S., Arnett, D. K., Blaha, M. J., Cushman, M., … & Turner, M. B. ((2016). Heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 133(4), e38-e360.

Nishimura, R. A., Otto, C. M., Bonow, R. O., Carabello, B. A., Erwin, J. P., Guyton, R. A., … & Voon, W. L. ((2020). 2020 ACC/AHA guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 143(5), e72-e227.

Yancy, C. W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B., Butler, J., Casey Jr, D. E., Drazner, M. H., … & DeMets, D. ((2017). 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(6), 776-803.