Healthy aging is an important public health issue, both nationally and internationally. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes healthy aging as a process whereby all people of all ages are able to live a healthy, safe and socially inclusive lifestyle. Discuss:  how social determinants of health for the older adult are impacted for those living in poverty. Word limit 500 words. Support your answers with the literature and provide citations and references (3) and less than 5 years in APA format.

Introduction
Healthy aging is a complex process influenced by various factors, including social determinants of health. Social determinants of health refer to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, and are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources at global, national, and local levels. Older adults living in poverty face unique challenges that can impact their social determinants of health, leading to disparities in healthy aging outcomes. This essay will discuss how social determinants of health for older adults are affected by poverty, drawing from recent literature in the field.

Social Determinants of Health for Older Adults
Social determinants of health for older adults encompass various domains, including economic, social, and physical environments. Economic factors play a crucial role in shaping the health of older adults, particularly those living in poverty. Poverty restricts access to resources necessary for healthy aging, such as nutritious food, adequate housing, and healthcare services (World Health Organization, 2018). Low income can also limit opportunities for social participation and engagement, affecting mental well-being and overall quality of life.

Furthermore, social factors contribute significantly to the social determinants of health for older adults. Social support systems, such as family, friends, and community networks, are vital for maintaining health and well-being among older adults (Berkman et al., 2014). However, individuals living in poverty may experience limited social connections due to reduced social capital and restricted access to community resources. This isolation can lead to increased feelings of loneliness and depression, negatively influencing physical and mental health outcomes.

Physical environments also have a profound impact on the social determinants of health for older adults. Older adults living in poverty are more likely to reside in neighborhoods with poor housing quality, high crime rates, and limited access to recreational facilities and green spaces (Ljungqvist & Jakobsson, 2019). These environmental factors can contribute to increased stress, represent barriers to physical activity, and limit opportunities for social engagement, all of which are crucial for healthy aging.

Impact of Poverty on Social Determinants of Health for Older Adults
Poverty has far-reaching effects on the social determinants of health for older adults, leading to disparities in healthy aging outcomes. Firstly, older adults living in poverty often face inadequate nutrition due to financial constraints, resulting in malnutrition and increased risk of chronic diseases (United Nations, 2020). Limited financial resources can restrict access to healthy food options, which are essential for maintaining optimal health and preventing age-related decline.

In addition, financial limitations associated with poverty can impede access to healthcare services, including preventative and curative care. Older adults living in poverty may delay seeking medical attention due to cost concerns, resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment of health conditions (Gallo et al., 2017). This can lead to worsening health outcomes and increased healthcare costs in the long run. The inability to afford basic healthcare services also limits access to preventive measures, such as vaccinations and screenings, which are crucial for maintaining health and preventing disease in older adults.

Moreover, poverty can restrict opportunities for social participation and engagement among older adults. Participation in social activities and engagement with communities play an essential role in promoting mental well-being and reducing the risk of social isolation. However, older adults living in poverty may lack resources or opportunities to participate in social activities, leading to increased loneliness and depression (Hong et al., 2020). This social isolation can negatively impact physical and mental health outcomes and increase the risk of cognitive decline in older adults.

Conclusion
In conclusion, social determinants of health for older adults are significantly impacted by poverty. Economic, social, and physical factors all play a role in shaping the health outcomes of older adults living in poverty. The effects of poverty on nutrition, access to healthcare services, and social participation can result in disparities in healthy aging outcomes. Efforts to address poverty and its impact on social determinants of health for older adults are crucial to promote healthy aging and reduce disparities in health outcomes. More research is needed to further understand the complex interactions between poverty and social determinants of health in older adults and to develop targeted interventions to improve healthy aging outcomes for this vulnerable population.