Go through the case study attached below and answer the belo…

Go through the case study attached below and answer the below questions. Discussion Points: 1.Do some Internet research on Chevron’s use of seismic imaging technology. Briefly explain how it works and how it has helped Chevron discover new oil and gas reservoirs. C6-7 2. Do some Internet research on security vulnerabilities associated with SCADA and digital industrial control systems. Summarize the major security concerns associated with these systems and steps than can be taken to enhance their security. 3. Discuss the pros and cons of moving enterprise-wide applications that have traditionally been supported on premises to the cloud. 4. Do some Internet research on identify management and single sign on systems. Briefly explain how these work and why they are important in business intranets and extranets. 5. Why is it increasing most important for a CIO or IT executive who oversees geographically distributed enterprise networks to be business literate?

1. Chevron has utilized seismic imaging technology as a valuable tool in the exploration and production of oil and gas reservoirs. Seismic imaging involves using acoustic waves to create detailed images of underground rock formations. This technology relies on the principle that different rock types and structures will reflect and refract waves in unique ways. Through the use of sophisticated sensors, such as geophones and seismographs, seismic imaging can analyze the patterns and characteristics of these waves to determine the presence and location of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Chevron has effectively employed seismic imaging technology to discover new oil and gas reservoirs in multiple ways. Firstly, it has allowed the company to map a subsurface region and identify potential drilling sites. By analyzing the seismic data collected, geoscientists can decipher the location, extent, and quality of reservoirs with a high level of accuracy. This information assists Chevron in targeting specific areas that are more likely to contain oil and gas deposits, thus reducing exploration risk and increasing success rates.

Secondly, seismic imaging aids in delineating reservoir boundaries, enabling Chevron to optimize the design and positioning of wells for efficient extraction. By understanding the shape and size of the reservoir, the company can strategically place production wells to maximize recovery and minimize costs. Additionally, seismic imaging can help identify fault lines and fractures that may affect reservoir performance, allowing Chevron to implement appropriate reservoir management strategies.

Overall, seismic imaging has revolutionized Chevron’s exploration and production operations by providing valuable insights into subsurface geology. It has improved efficiency, reduced costs, and increased the success rate of discovering and developing oil and gas reservoirs.

2. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and digital industrial control systems are crucial components of modern industrial operations. However, these systems can also be vulnerable to security breaches and cyber-attacks, posing significant risks to critical infrastructure and public safety. Several major security concerns associated with SCADA and digital industrial control systems include:

a. Unauthorized Access: As these systems are often connected to external networks, unauthorized individuals or hackers may attempt to gain access to the control systems. This can lead to various malicious activities, such as tampering with control settings, disrupting operations, or causing physical damage.

b. Data Manipulation and Spoofing: Attackers can manipulate or forge data transmitted between sensors, controllers, and other components of the system. By tampering with data, they can deceive operators and potentially lead to incorrect decisions or hazardous conditions.

c. Malware and Viruses: SCADA and control systems can be targets for malware and viruses designed to disrupt or compromise their operations. Such malicious software can disable or manipulate critical processes, resulting in equipment failures, shutdowns, or even catastrophic accidents.

d. Lack of Security Updates and Patches: Many SCADA systems were implemented years ago and continue to operate without regular security updates and patches. This increases vulnerability to new threats and exploits that emerge over time.

To enhance the security of SCADA and digital industrial control systems, various measures can be taken. These include:

a. Network Segmentation: Implementing strict network segmentation protocols to isolate critical control systems from external networks can help mitigate the risk of unauthorized access.

b. Authentication and Access Controls: Implementing strong authentication mechanisms, such as multi-factor authentication, and enforcing strict access controls can reduce the likelihood of unauthorized access to the systems.

c. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems: Deploying intrusion detection and prevention systems can help identify and mitigate potential attacks by monitoring network traffic and identifying anomalies or suspicious activities in real-time.

d. Regular Security Audits and Updates: Conducting regular security audits, vulnerability assessments, and applying necessary security updates and patches are essential to maintain the integrity and security of SCADA and control systems.

In conclusion, protecting the security of SCADA and digital industrial control systems is imperative to safeguard critical infrastructure. Implementing robust security measures and staying vigilant against emerging threats can help mitigate the risks associated with these systems.