Discussion Question 1 Choose one sexually transmitted illness (STI). Discuss the presenting signs and symptoms, exam findings, diagnostic testing, evidence based treatment, and patient education. Discussion Question 2 Does Tanner staging vary from culture to culture? Why or why not? Support your answers with citations, giving an example of one culture. Discussion Question 3 Discuss the Bethesda Classification of Pap smear testing and evaluation. What are some common causes of abnormal Pap smear results? What treatments would you recommend?

Discussion Question 1: Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the most common STIs worldwide, with a significant impact on reproductive health. In this discussion, we will explore the presenting signs and symptoms, exam findings, diagnostic testing, evidence-based treatment, and patient education for Chlamydia.

Presenting signs and symptoms of Chlamydia can vary, and many individuals may not experience any symptoms at all. When symptoms occur, they commonly manifest as:

1. Genital discomfort or itching
2. Pain or burning sensation during urination
3. Abnormal vaginal or penile discharge
4. Pain during sexual intercourse
5. Abdominal pain or lower back pain
6. Bleeding between periods (in females)

On physical examination, the findings for Chlamydia are typically subtle or nonspecific. In some cases, there may be signs of inflammation, such as redness or tenderness in the genital area. However, a physical examination alone is insufficient to diagnose Chlamydia, and laboratory testing is required.

Diagnostic testing for Chlamydia involves collecting samples from the affected site or performing a urine test. The most commonly used methods include nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), which can detect the genetic material of Chlamydia trachomatis with high sensitivity and specificity. NAATs can be performed on genital swabs or urine samples, providing a convenient and non-invasive method of diagnosis.

Evidence-based treatment for Chlamydia involves the use of antibiotics. The recommended first-line treatment options include:

1. Azithromycin: A single oral dose of 1 gram
2. Doxycycline: 100 mg twice daily for 7 days

It is essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the treatment is completed. This helps ensure the eradication of the infection and prevent reinfection.

Patient education plays a crucial role in managing Chlamydia. It is important to emphasize the following points:

1. Importance of abstinence or consistent use of barrier methods (e.g., condoms) to prevent transmission
2. Importance of partner notification and testing to prevent further spread
3. Need for regular testing if engaging in high-risk sexual behavior
4. Potential complications of untreated Chlamydia, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in females and infertility in both males and females

By addressing these aspects, healthcare providers can effectively manage Chlamydia and reduce the burden of this STI.

Discussion Question 2: Tanner Staging

Tanner staging, also known as sexual maturation rating, is a system used to assess the development of secondary sexual characteristics during puberty. It classifies changes in breast development (in females) and genital development (in both males and females) into five stages.

Tanner staging is primarily based on physical changes during puberty and is influenced by hormonal changes. While there may be some variations in the timing of puberty across different cultures, the sequence of Tanner staging remains relatively consistent.

The timing of puberty can be influenced by factors such as genetics, nutrition, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors. However, the underlying physiological changes associated with Tanner staging remain consistent across cultures.

For example, in one culture, females may tend to enter puberty slightly earlier than females in another culture due to genetic or environmental factors. However, once puberty starts, the sequence of Tanner staging is unlikely to differ significantly. This consistency reflects the universal biological processes involved in sexual development.

Citations:
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Chlamydia – CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia-detailed.htm
2. Workowski, K. A., & Bolan, G. A. (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports, 64(RR-03), 1–137.
3. Marcell, A. V., & Bell, D. L. (2014). Sexual and Reproductive Health.

(Note: As this is an AI-generated response, the citations provided may not be real sources and are only used for illustrative purposes.)