Discuss an acute case scenario that you observed in the primary care clinical setting recently for the adult population ranging 35–65-year old. Discuss how this case can develop into chronic disease management? higher risk for heart attack and stroke, Eye and vision problems, including blindness. Kidney disease that kidney failure. ) What was the evidence that supported the intended outcomes for this patient scenario? (use evidence based research). Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it

Title: Acute Case Scenario: Implications for Chronic Disease Management in the Adult Population

Introduction:
Acute case scenarios in primary care settings often require careful assessment and management to prevent the progression of the condition into a chronic disease state. This paper discusses an acute case scenario observed in the primary care clinical setting for the adult population aged 35-65. Specifically, the scenario focuses on the potential development of chronic disease management, highlighting the increased risks of heart attack, stroke, eye and vision problems, and kidney disease.

Case Scenario:
In the observed case scenario, a 45-year-old male patient presents with sudden onset chest pain radiating to the left arm, associated with shortness of breath and diaphoresis. Further examination reveals an elevated blood pressure reading and abnormal lipid profile. The patient has a family history of cardiovascular disease, and he is an active smoker with a sedentary lifestyle. Based on these clinical findings, the patient is at an increased risk for developing chronic diseases, particularly heart attack and stroke.

Development into Chronic Disease Management:

1. Higher Risk for Heart Attack and Stroke:
The patient’s acute presentation of chest pain, along with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, highlights the possibility of developing chronic cardiovascular disease. Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke are common sequelae of untreated or poorly managed cardiovascular conditions. To prevent the progression of this acute presentation into chronic disease, management strategies should focus on:

(a) Lifestyle modifications:
Encouraging smoking cessation, adopting a healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and managing hypertension are crucial measures to mitigate the risk of chronic cardiovascular diseases (Estruch et al., 2013; Mozaffarian et al., 2011).

(b) Medication therapy:
Initiating medication therapy, such as antiplatelet agents, statins, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, can help control blood pressure, prevent clot formation, and reduce cholesterol levels, thereby reducing the risks of recurrent heart attacks and strokes (Roth et al., 2018; Stone et al., 2019).

2. Eye and Vision Problems, Including Blindness:
The patient’s risk for developing eye and vision problems, including blindness, stems from uncontrolled chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Evidence-based interventions include:

(a) Regular monitoring and control of blood glucose levels:
Achieving glycemic control through diet, physical activity, medication, and regular eye examinations can help manage and prevent diabetic retinopathy, a common cause of vision impairment in diabetic patients (American Diabetes Association, 2021).

(b) Blood pressure management:
Controlling hypertension reduces the risk of developing hypertensive retinopathy, another significant cause of vision impairment (Flammer et al., 2013).

(c) Regular ophthalmic examinations:
Encouraging yearly or biennial eye examinations allows for early detection and timely management of potential eye problems, preventing the progression to blindness (American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2020).

3. Kidney Disease Leading to Kidney Failure:
The patient’s increased risk of kidney disease, potentially progressing to kidney failure, necessitates appropriate interventions to minimize disease progression:

(a) Blood pressure control:
Hypertension is a significant contributor to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to control blood pressure can help slow down kidney damage and delay the onset of kidney failure (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Blood Pressure Work Group, 2012).

(b) Albuminuria screening:
Regular screening for albuminuria, a marker of kidney damage, allows for early detection and intervention to slow disease progression (Levine et al., 2020).

(c) Lifestyle modifications:
Maintaining a healthy weight, adopting a low-sodium diet, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking can further contribute to preventing or delaying the progression of kidney disease (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Blood Pressure Work Group, 2012).

Evidence Supporting the Intended Outcomes:
To support the intended outcomes for this patient scenario, evidence-based research plays a crucial role. Numerous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses provide robust evidence on the effectiveness of various interventions in managing chronic diseases and reducing associated risks. Some key studies include:

– The PREDIMED trial, which demonstrated the cardioprotective effects of a Mediterranean diet in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events (Estruch et al., 2013).
– The 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, which provides evidence-based recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risks (Stone et al., 2019).
– The ADVANCE and UKPDS studies, which established the benefits of glycemic control in reducing the risk of diabetic complications, including eye and kidney diseases (ADVANCE Collaborative Group, 2008; UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1998).

Conclusion:
This acute case scenario highlights the importance of early identification and management of acute conditions to prevent their progression into chronic diseases. By implementing evidence-based interventions, such as lifestyle modifications and medication therapy tailored to individual risk profiles, healthcare providers can effectively reduce the risks of heart attack, stroke, eye and vision problems, and kidney disease. Timely and appropriate interventions, guided by rigorous research evidence, can lead to improved outcomes and better quality of life for the adult population aged 35-65.