Critique quality of the literature reviews conducted for two different types of studies- a quantitative and qualitative research. Identify and discuss the research questions, sampling and sampling sizes, research designs (qualitative vs. quantitative), hypothesis, data collection methods, and research findings. Discuss the credibility of the sources and the research/researchers findings. 400-word minimum/550-word maximum without the references. Minimum of 3 references (the course textbook must be one of the references) in APA format, must have been published within last 3-5 years

Title: Critique of Literature Reviews in Quantitative and Qualitative Studies

Introduction:
Literature reviews play a critical role in research studies by providing an overview of existing knowledge and supporting the formulation of research questions, sampling strategies, research designs, hypothesis testing, data collection methods, and research findings. This critique examines the quality of literature reviews conducted in two distinct types of studies: quantitative and qualitative research. By evaluating aspects such as research questions, sampling techniques, research designs, data collection methods, and research findings, we can assess the credibility of the sources and the overall conclusions drawn by the researchers.

Quantitative Research Literature Review:
In quantitative studies, the literature review plays a pivotal role in identifying the knowledge gaps, establishing research questions, and providing a theoretical framework for the study. A well-structured literature review should provide a comprehensive overview of relevant studies and theoretical perspectives. Furthermore, it should offer a synthesis of the existing knowledge and clearly delineate the research problem.

Moreover, a quantitative literature review should establish the rationale behind the research questions. By identifying the gaps in existing research, the literature review should justify the need for the study and articulate how the research questions will address these gaps. A high-quality literature review will clearly define the research questions and show their alignment with the study objectives.

Additionally, the sampling strategy and sample size used in a quantitative study are crucial aspects to consider. The literature review should outline the sampling technique employed (e.g., random sampling, stratified sampling) and justify its appropriateness for the research objectives. Furthermore, it should discuss the sample size determination, including any power analyses, to ensure adequate statistical power.

In terms of research design, quantitative studies often employ experimental or non-experimental designs. The literature review should discuss the different research designs used in similar studies and explain why a particular design was chosen. Additionally, it should explain how this design supports the research questions and helps test the hypotheses formulated.

Next, a well-developed literature review should outline the hypotheses or research statements and discuss how they were derived from the existing body of knowledge. By linking the research questions to the hypotheses, the literature review should provide a logical flow that justifies the research design and data collection methods.

Furthermore, the data collection methods employed in a quantitative study should be clearly described and justified in the literature review. The review should discuss the reliability and validity of the instruments used to collect data and explain the appropriateness of these methods for addressing the research questions.

Finally, the research findings should be discussed in light of the literature review. The review should evaluate the effect sizes, statistical significance, and generalizability of the findings. It should also address any limitations or potential biases that may affect the interpretation of results.

Qualitative Research Literature Review:
In qualitative studies, the literature review similarly serves as the foundation for research questions, sampling strategies, research designs, hypothesis formulation, data collection methods, and research findings. However, the nature of the literature review differs in terms of focus and approach.

A qualitative literature review primarily aims to identify the existing concepts, theories, and frameworks relevant to the research topic. It seeks to explore the various perspectives and meanings that contribute to the understanding of a phenomenon. The review should highlight key themes, debates, or gaps in the literature and discuss how these inform research questions.

Regarding sampling techniques and sample size, a qualitative literature review emphasizes the theoretical saturation rather than sample representativeness. The review should discuss the sampling strategy employed (e.g., purposeful sampling, snowball sampling) and explain its suitability for capturing diverse experiences or perspectives related to the research topic.

Moreover, the literature review should outline the research design and justify its alignment with the research questions. It should discuss different qualitative research approaches (e.g., phenomenology, grounded theory) and explain why a specific approach was chosen. The review should also address the role of the researcher and potential biases in the study design.

Unlike hypothesis-driven quantitative studies, qualitative research aims to generate rich, descriptive findings. Therefore, the literature review should discuss how the research questions emerged from the existing literature and how they align with the research design. It should explain the iterative and emergent nature of qualitative research, highlighting how data collection and analysis influence the research process.

In terms of data collection, the literature review should describe the methods used in qualitative studies (e.g., interviews, observations, focus groups) and discuss their appropriateness for capturing in-depth insights. The review should address issues of credibility, trustworthiness, and rigor in qualitative research, including techniques used for data triangulation and member checking.

Finally, the literature review should critically analyze the research findings and their interpretation. It should evaluate the transferability and relevance of findings within the broader context of the existing literature. The review should acknowledge any potential biases, reflexivity, or subjectivity that may influence the researchers’ interpretations.

Credibility of Sources and Research Findings:
To assess the credibility of the sources, it is essential to consider the validity and reliability of the studies included in the literature review. The credibility of the sources can be evaluated based on their publication in reputable journals, peer-review processes, and adherence to ethical standards. Additionally, the inclusion of recent studies within the last 3-5 years demonstrates the use of up-to-date information.

Moreover, the credibility of the research findings can be evaluated based on the rigor of the research methodology, the clarity of data collection and analysis procedures, the transparency of the research processes, and the credibility of the researchers themselves. Emphasizing transparency can help ensure that the research findings are trustworthy and can be replicated or built upon by future researchers.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, a well-executed literature review is crucial to the quality and credibility of research studies. A quantitative literature review should justify the research questions, sampling strategies, research designs, data collection methods, and research findings. Likewise, a qualitative literature review should provide a theoretical grounding, discuss sampling techniques, research design, data collection methods, and research findings. Evaluating the credibility of sources and the research findings helps establish the validity and generalizability of the research conclusions. Researchers must strive for a thorough and critical evaluation of the existing knowledge to enhance the quality and impact of their own studies.