In this assignment, we will critique and compare the quality of literature reviews conducted in two different types of studies: quantitative and qualitative research. We will also discuss the research questions, sampling and sampling sizes, research designs, hypothesis, data collection methods, and research findings. Additionally, we will analyze the credibility of the sources and the credibility of the research and researchers’ findings.
To begin, let us examine the literature review in a quantitative research study. This type of study aims to obtain numerical data and determine patterns and relationships among variables. The literature review in a quantitative study should provide a comprehensive overview of previous research in the field and identify any gaps in the literature that the current study aims to address.
In terms of research questions, a quantitative study typically poses specific research questions or hypotheses that can be answered or tested using statistical methods. These questions are often derived from previous research and theory, and aim to investigate the relationship between variables. The sampling and sample size in a quantitative study are crucial for generalizability. The sample should be representative of the population under study, and the sample size should be large enough to ensure sufficient statistical power.
The research design in a quantitative study is typically experimental, quasi-experimental, or correlational. The choice of design depends on the research question and the ability to manipulate independent variables. For hypothesis testing, a quantitative study typically formulates null and alternative hypotheses, which are then tested using statistical analyses.
In terms of data collection methods, a quantitative study often utilizes structured questionnaires, surveys, or experiments to gather data. These methods allow for standardized, systematic data collection, ensuring reliability and objectivity. The research findings in a quantitative study are often presented in the form of statistical analyses and descriptive statistics, supporting or refuting the research hypotheses.
Moving on to the literature review in a qualitative research study, this type of study seeks to understand and interpret the meaning and experiences of individuals or groups. The literature review in a qualitative study should provide an in-depth exploration of relevant theories, concepts, and previous research in the field. It should also highlight the need for a qualitative approach and identify any gaps or areas for further exploration.
Research questions in a qualitative study tend to be open-ended and focus on understanding the phenomena under study. Rather than testing specific hypotheses, qualitative research aims to generate theories or hypotheses based on the data collected. The sampling in a qualitative study is typically purposive, aiming for maximum variation or specific characteristics relevant to the research question. The sample size is not determined by statistical considerations but by data saturation, which is the point when no new information emerges from further data collection.
The research design in a qualitative study is often flexible and emergent, allowing for iterative data collection and analysis. It may involve methods such as interviews, observations, or document analysis. These methods seek to gather rich, contextualized data that can provide deep insights into the research phenomena.
In terms of data analysis, qualitative research often involves processes such as coding, categorizing, and thematic analysis. The research findings are typically presented in descriptive, narrative form, using quotes and examples to illustrate key themes or patterns.
Now, let us consider the credibility of the sources and the research/researchers’ findings in both types of studies. In quantitative research, the credibility of the sources can be assessed by evaluating their rigor and validity. High-quality sources should come from reputable journals and have undergone a peer-review process. Additionally, the research findings should be supported by well-established statistical methods and reported in a transparent manner.
In qualitative research, the credibility of the sources can be evaluated by looking at the researchers’ reflexivity and the trustworthiness of the research process. Reflexivity refers to the researchers’ acknowledgment of their own biases and the impact of their presence on the research process. The trustworthiness of the research can be assessed through strategies such as member checking, triangulation, and thick description, which aim to enhance the credibility and dependability of the findings.
In conclusion, the quality of literature reviews in quantitative and qualitative research studies can vary based on their adherence to established guidelines. The research questions, sampling and sampling sizes, research designs, data collection methods, and research findings all contribute to the overall quality of the study. Additionally, the credibility of the sources and the research/researchers’ findings should be evaluated using appropriate criteria. By critically examining these components, we can assess the validity and reliability of the research conducted in these studies.