Choose one health policy model from the following: kindon’s policy stream model or stage-sequential model or Richmond-Kotelchuck Model or Local Public Health Policy Model. After choosing one, discuss a policy in  health care that was implemented using the particular model. Note why  this particular policy meets the requirements of the model it represents  and what Constitutional or U.S. government powers were instrumental in  this policy. Must be 325 words and at least 3 scholarly cited sources – APA.


Health policy models provide a framework for understanding the process of policy development and implementation in the healthcare sector. One such model is the Stage-Sequential Model, which outlines a systematic approach to policy development, implementation, and evaluation. This model consists of several distinct stages, each with its own set of requirements and processes. In this paper, we will discuss a policy in healthcare that was implemented using the Stage-Sequential Model. Specifically, we will explore the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and how it meets the requirements of this model.

Stage-Sequential Model

The Stage-Sequential Model, developed by William Dunn, provides a comprehensive framework for understanding policy development and implementation (Dunn, 2017). According to this model, policy development occurs in a sequential manner, with each stage building upon the previous one. The stages include problem identification, agenda setting, policy formulation, policy legitimation, policy implementation, and policy evaluation. Each stage requires input from various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, advocates, and the public.

The ACA and the Stage-Sequential Model

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed in 2010, aimed to increase the quality and affordability of healthcare in the United States while expanding access to health insurance coverage (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2017). The ACA is an example of a policy that was implemented using the Stage-Sequential Model.

Problem Identification: The initial stage of the Stage-Sequential Model involves identifying and defining the problem that needs to be addressed. In the case of the ACA, the problem identified was the high number of uninsured individuals in the United States, which led to limited access to healthcare services and increased healthcare costs (Bovbjerg et al., 2011).

Agenda Setting: During this stage, policymakers and advocates work to place the problem on the political agenda. With the ACA, various stakeholders, including policymakers and advocacy groups, highlighted the issue of healthcare access and affordability, bringing it to the forefront of public discourse and political debates (Bitler et al., 2015).

Policy Formulation: This stage involves the development of policy options and the selection of the most appropriate solution based on research evidence and stakeholder input. For the ACA, policymakers and experts conducted extensive research, analyses, and debates to formulate a comprehensive healthcare reform plan. The policy options included expanding Medicaid, creating health insurance exchanges, and implementing individual mandates (Blumberg et al., 2013).

Policy Legitimation: In this stage, the proposed policy is legitimized through political processes such as legislative debates and public hearings. The ACA underwent extensive legislative debates in Congress, with both the House and Senate playing a crucial role in shaping the final policy (Grogan et al., 2016). Ultimately, the ACA was signed into law by President Obama, providing the necessary legitimacy for implementation.

Policy Implementation: This stage involves the actual implementation of the policy. The ACA implemented various provisions, including the establishment of Health Insurance Marketplaces, expansion of Medicaid, and the individual mandate requiring most Americans to have health insurance coverage (Giaimo, 2011). This required collaboration between federal and state agencies, as well as private stakeholders such as insurers and healthcare providers.

Policy Evaluation: The final stage of the Stage-Sequential Model involves assessing the effectiveness of the policy and making necessary adjustments. The ACA has been subject to ongoing evaluation through research studies, surveys, and analysis of various outcomes (Wolfe, 2016). These evaluations have helped identify areas of success and areas that require improvement and have contributed to subsequent policy changes and adjustments.

Constitutional and U.S. Government Powers

The ACA relies on various Constitutional and U.S. government powers to facilitate its implementation. It draws upon the power of Congress to regulate commerce, as the individual mandate and the requirement for insurance companies to cover essential health benefits fall under this jurisdiction (Sager, 2012). Additionally, the ACA uses the federal government’s spending power through the Medicaid expansion provision, whereby states receive federal funding to expand their Medicaid programs (Parmet et al., 2011).


The Affordable Care Act is a prime example of a policy implemented utilizing the Stage-Sequential Model. This model, with its sequential stages, provides a systematic framework for policy development and implementation. The ACA addresses the problem of limited access to healthcare and high healthcare costs by implementing provisions such as health insurance marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, and the individual mandate. The ACA’s implementation relies on various Constitutional and U.S. government powers, such as the power to regulate commerce and the spending power. Ongoing evaluations of the ACA inform adjustments and improvements to the policy, ensuring its continued effectiveness in addressing the healthcare needs of the American population.