Case Study 1 & 2 Lyme Disease and Peripheral Vascular Disease The answers must be in your own words with reference to journal or book where you found the evidence to your answer. Do not copy paste or use a past students work as all files submitted in this course are registered and saved in turn it in program. Answers must be scholarly and be 3-4 sentences in length with rationale and explanation. No Straight forward / Simple answer will be accepted.

Case Study 1: Lyme Disease
Lyme disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks. The disease primarily affects the joints, nervous system, and heart. According to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Lyme disease can lead to persistent symptoms such as joint pain, fatigue, and cognitive difficulties even after appropriate antibiotic treatment. This is known as Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS). The study suggests that the underlying cause of PTLDS may be immune-related.

Case Study 2: Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) is a condition characterized by narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the limbs, typically the legs. This can result in pain, numbness, and difficulty walking. A study published in the Journal of Vascular Surgery found that PVD is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. The study suggests that the underlying mechanisms linking PVD and cardiovascular events may involve shared risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and smoking, as well as systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.


Case Study 1:
Klempner, M. S., Hu, L. T., Evans, J., Schmid, C. H., Johnson, G. M., Trevino, R. P., … & Weinstein, A. (2001). Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(2), 85-92.

Case Study 2:
Criqui, M. H., Fronek, A., Barrett-Connor, E., Klauber, M. R., Gabriel, S., & Goodman, D. (1985). The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population. Circulation, 71(3), 510-515.