Callista Roy and Betty Neuman’s theories view the person (individual, group, or community) as a holistic adaptive system that constantly interacts with the internal and external environments. Both theories view the person as being the center of nursing and present health/wellness and illness as parts of the same continuum, however there are some key assumptions that are different. As such, select one of the theories and identify 1 assumption of the theory and discuss how the care rendered for this patient by an advanced practice nurse would be structured (assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, evaluation) according to the theory. Give 2 specific examples of interventions that you anticipate will be included in the patient’s care. Mr. Reynolds is a 32 year-old male patient hospitalized on the orthopedic unit of the hospital. He is status-post motorcycle accident and right leg below the knee amputation. He has a history of Depression and Schizophrenia. He is currently separated from his wife and estranged from his family. He is awaiting social work for placement in a rehabilitation facility, where he will continue his recovery.


In nursing theory, Callista Roy and Betty Neuman have developed models that both view the person as a holistic adaptive system that interacts with the internal and external environment. While both theories emphasize that the person is the focus of nursing and health and illness exist on a continuum, there are some distinct assumptions that inform each theory. In this assignment, we will explore Betty Neuman’s theory and discuss one assumption of the theory. Furthermore, we will examine how the care rendered for a patient, Mr. Reynolds, by an advanced practice nurse would be structured according to Neuman’s theory. Lastly, we will provide two specific examples of interventions that could be included in his care.

Assumption of Neuman’s Theory

One assumption of Betty Neuman’s theory is that humans are constantly in dynamic interaction with their environment. This assumption implies that individuals are affected by both internal and external stressors, and their response to these stressors will impact their overall wellness. In Neuman’s model, the person is seen as a dynamic system that strives for stability, adaptation, and balance. Thus, the care provided for Mr. Reynolds would be structured in a way that addresses his response to the stressors he encounters in his environment, both internal and external.

Structured Care According to Neuman’s Theory

Assessment: The assessment phase of care according to Neuman’s theory would involve a comprehensive evaluation of Mr. Reynolds’ physical, psychological, social, and spiritual health. It would also include an analysis of his internal and external stressors, such as his history of depression, schizophrenia, and the recent motorcycle accident resulting in a below-the-knee amputation. The nurse would collect data on Mr. Reynolds’ coping mechanisms, support systems, and current level of functioning to understand his overall adaptive capacity.

Diagnosis: The diagnosis phase in Neuman’s theory would involve identifying the specific stressors that are affecting Mr. Reynolds and determining the level of disruption they are causing to his system. The nurse would assess the extent to which his depression and schizophrenia are impacting his ability to adapt and recover from the amputation. The diagnosis would also take into consideration his estrangement from his family and the implications this has on his emotional well-being.

Planning: In the planning phase, the nurse would collaborate with Mr. Reynolds to develop a care plan that promotes his adaptation and recovery. This plan would aim to restore balance and stability to his system by addressing his physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. The nurse would consider interventions that enhance both his physical rehabilitation, such as exercises for his residual limb, and his emotional well-being, such as counseling or therapy to address his depression and schizophrenia.

Intervention: The intervention phase would involve implementing the planned interventions to assist Mr. Reynolds in achieving adaptive balance. Two specific interventions that could be included in his care are:

1. Psychoeducation: The nurse could provide psychoeducation to Mr. Reynolds about his depression and schizophrenia. This could include educating him on the nature of his conditions, teaching coping strategies, and providing resources for ongoing support and treatment. By increasing his understanding of his mental health conditions, Mr. Reynolds can better manage his symptoms and improve his overall well-being.

2. Social support facilitation: Since Mr. Reynolds is currently separated from his wife and estranged from his family, the nurse could facilitate connections with appropriate support groups or community resources. These resources could provide him with a sense of belonging and social support, which can help alleviate feelings of isolation and loneliness. By fostering social connections, Mr. Reynolds can enhance his adaptive capacity and promote his overall wellness.

Evaluation: The evaluation phase would involve assessing the effectiveness of the interventions implemented in promoting Mr. Reynolds’ adaptation and recovery. The nurse would monitor his progress, evaluate the extent to which his adaptive balance has improved, and modify the care plan as needed. By regularly evaluating his response to interventions, the nurse can ensure that the care provided aligns with Neuman’s theory and promotes his overall well-being.


Betty Neuman’s theory views the person as a dynamic adaptive system constantly interacting with the internal and external environment. One key assumption of the theory is that humans are affected by stressors and respond by striving for adaptation and stability. In the case of Mr. Reynolds, the care rendered by an advanced practice nurse would be structured to address his response to internal and external stressors. The care plan would involve assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation to promote his adaptation and recovery. Specific interventions, such as psychoeducation and social support facilitation, would be included in his care to address his mental health and social needs. By utilizing Neuman’s theory, the nurse can provide holistic care that supports Mr. Reynolds’ overall well-being.