. answer the following questions; 1.  Discuss the organization and the family role in every one of the heritages mentioned about and how they affect (positively or negatively) the delivery of health care. 2.  Identify sociocultural variables within the Irish, Italian and Puerto Rican heritage and mention some examples. Only the assignment must be attached in a word document in the forum, replies do not.  References must be no older than 5 years.  A minimum of 700 words is required.

Title: Impact of Organization and Family Roles on Healthcare Delivery in Irish, Italian, and Puerto Rican Heritages


Healthcare delivery is influenced by various factors, including sociocultural variables and the organization and family roles within different heritages. Understanding these factors is crucial in providing culturally competent healthcare. This paper aims to discuss the organization and family roles in Irish, Italian, and Puerto Rican heritages and analyze their impact on healthcare delivery. Additionally, sociocultural variables specific to these heritages will be identified, and relevant examples will be provided.

Organization and Family Roles in Irish Heritage:

The Irish heritage is characterized by a strong emphasis on family and community ties. The organization within Irish families is often hierarchical, with the father considered the head of the household. Decision-making authority typically rests with the male members, while women primarily fulfill domestic and caregiving roles (McDonald, 2010). This hierarchical structure can influence healthcare delivery, as decisions regarding treatment plans and healthcare choices may involve multiple family members and require consensus.

The influence of the Catholic Church is another significant aspect of Irish heritage. The Church plays a vital role in shaping values, moral beliefs, and healthcare decisions within Irish families. It encourages a holistic approach to healthcare, encompassing physical, mental, and spiritual well-being (Flaherty & FitzGerald, 2011). Moreover, the Church’s teachings on issues such as contraception and end-of-life care may influence families’ healthcare decisions, potentially impacting healthcare delivery.

Family roles, especially those of women, significantly affect healthcare delivery within Irish heritage. Traditionally, Irish women have borne the responsibilities of caregiving, nurturing, and maintaining the household. This role often extends to healthcare, where women commonly assume the role of primary caregivers for family members (McDonald, 2010). Consequently, the healthcare needs and preferences of female members are paramount in healthcare delivery.

Organization and Family Roles in Italian Heritage:

The organization and family roles in Italian heritage are deeply rooted in patriarchal traditions. The family is regarded as the central unit, and respect for elders is highly valued. Italian families often exhibit strong intergenerational bonds, with individuals relying on extended family networks for support and guidance (Tusek, 2012).

Decision-making within Italian families is typically centralized, with authority resting primarily with the male head of the household. This can influence healthcare delivery, where important decisions regarding treatment plans, consent, and end-of-life care may involve multiple family members and necessitate agreement (Salmon, 2013). Moreover, the role of the extended family can impact healthcare decisions, with input and influence from multiple family members.

The cultural and societal influence of Roman Catholicism is prominent in Italian heritage, significantly shaping healthcare beliefs and practices. The Catholic Church’s teachings on issues such as contraception, reproductive technologies, and abortion may influence healthcare decisions within Italian families (Tusek, 2012). Consequently, healthcare providers must be aware of these religious and ethical considerations when delivering care to individuals of Italian heritage.

Family roles, particularly those assigned to women, also affect healthcare delivery within Italian heritage. Traditionally, Italian women have been expected to fulfill caregiving roles both within and outside the family (De Santis et al., 2019). This responsibility often extends to healthcare, where women commonly act as primary caretakers and advocates for family members’ health needs. Understanding and involving women in healthcare decisions are crucial for providing effective care within the Italian heritage.

Organization and Family Roles in Puerto Rican Heritage:

The organization and family roles in Puerto Rican heritage are deeply influenced by cultural and historical factors. The extended family, or extended kinship networks, known as “familismo,” plays a vital role within Puerto Rican families (Adams & Carvajal, 2014). Familismo values close-knit family relationships, where support and assistance come from various family members, beyond immediate relatives.

Decision-making within Puerto Rican families is often collective and involves multiple family members, with the male head of the household having significant influence. Authority figures, such as grandparents and uncles, are consulted and respected when making important healthcare decisions (Adams & Carvajal, 2014). This collective decision-making can impact healthcare delivery, as it necessitates involving multiple family members in care planning and ensuring their collaboration.

The cultural influence of Catholicism and Afro-Caribbean religions, such as Santeria, shape healthcare beliefs and practices within the Puerto Rican heritage. Religion often provides a framework for understanding illness, healing, and healthcare decision-making (Adams & Carvajal, 2014). Healthcare providers must be knowledgeable about these religious and spiritual beliefs to provide culturally appropriate care that respects and integrates these foundations.

Family roles in Puerto Rican heritage are multifaceted and vary within different generations and settings. Traditionally, gender roles have assigned women with caregiving responsibilities, including healthcare tasks, such as administering medications and coordinating appointments (Harrison, 2017). However, modern trends have seen an increase in women’s educational and occupational opportunities, thereby potentially altering family roles and dynamics within Puerto Rican families.

Sociocultural Variables within Irish, Italian, and Puerto Rican Heritages:

Irish Heritage: The sociocultural variables within Irish heritage include religiosity, community support, and emphasis on individual autonomy and self-reliance. Religion, primarily Catholicism, influences healthcare attitudes and practices, such as respect for life and holistic care (Flaherty & FitzGerald, 2011). The close-knit community support provides a sense of belonging and promotes health-seeking behaviors. However, individual autonomy and self-reliance can create barriers to seeking healthcare services, especially for mental health issues.

Italian Heritage: Sociocultural variables within Italian heritage include strong family ties, an emphasis on respect for elders, and cultural pride. These variables shape healthcare utilization patterns, with reliance on family networks for support and caregiving (De Santis et al., 2019). Respect for elders influences healthcare decisions and the involvement of multiple family members in care planning. Cultural pride can play a significant role in healthcare preferences and the desire for providers who understand and respect Italian cultural values.

Puerto Rican Heritage: Sociocultural variables within Puerto Rican heritage encompass familismo, religiosity, and the influence of traditional healing practices. Familismo reinforces the importance of extended family support and involvement in healthcare decision-making (Adams & Carvajal, 2014). Religiosity significantly impacts healthcare beliefs and practices, providing a framework for understanding health and healing. The influence of traditional healing practices, such as Santeria, may affect healthcare choices and the integration of complementary and alternative therapies.


The organization and family roles within Irish, Italian, and Puerto Rican heritages significantly impact healthcare delivery. Understanding these sociocultural variables is crucial for healthcare providers to deliver culturally competent care. By recognizing and respecting the influence of family and organization in these heritages, healthcare providers can engage individuals, promote collaboration, and facilitate positive health outcomes.