Answer each question with a paragraph containing at least fi…

Answer each question with a paragraph containing at least five sentences. Include the question and number your answers accordingly. 1. what do each of these terms refer to: copyright, patent, trademark, trade secret? 2. Why is intellectual property entitled to legal protection? 3. Why did copyright laws become stricter and more punishing in the late 20th century? 4. What is the Fair Use doctrine? 5. Make an argument for legalizing the copying of music or software. 6. Do I or don’t I own the books on my Kindle? If I own them, why can’t I transfer them? If I don’t own them, what is my legal right to them? 7. What was the 1984 Sony Supreme Court case about? 8. Was Napster responsible for the actions of its users? 9. Why did the court find in favor of Diamond in the Rio case? 10. What is Digital Rights Management?

1. Copyright refers to the legal rights granted to the creator of an original work, such as a book, song, or film, to control how it is used and distributed. Patent, on the other hand, refers to the legal rights granted to the inventor of a new invention, which allows them to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention for a limited period of time. Trademark refers to the legal protection granted to a unique symbol, word, or phrase that distinguishes a particular product or service from others. Lastly, trade secret refers to confidential and valuable business information that is kept secret and provides a competitive advantage to the company that possesses it.

2. Intellectual property is entitled to legal protection for several reasons. First, it encourages innovation and creativity by providing incentives for individuals or companies to invest their time, resources, and efforts into developing new ideas and creations. Legal protection ensures that those who create intellectual property can profit from their work and have control over how it is used, which in turn fosters further innovation. Additionally, intellectual property rights help to promote fair competition and prevent others from unfairly benefiting from someone else’s ideas or inventions.

3. Copyright laws became stricter and more punishing in the late 20th century due to several factors. One of the main reasons was the rapid advancement of technology, particularly the ease of digital reproduction and distribution. This posed new challenges for copyright holders, as their works could be easily copied and shared without their authorization. In response, copyright laws were strengthened to provide more robust protections and deter infringement. Furthermore, the globalization of markets and the increasing value of intellectual property led to a greater emphasis on protecting creators’ rights, which resulted in stricter copyright laws.

4. The Fair Use doctrine is a legal concept that allows limited use of copyrighted material without obtaining permission from the copyright holder. It is intended to balance the interests of copyright owners with the public’s right to access and use copyrighted works for purposes such as criticism, comment, teaching, research, and news reporting. Fair Use is determined by four factors: the purpose and character of the use, the nature of the copyrighted work, the amount and substantiality of the portion used, and the effect of the use on the potential market for the original work.

5. An argument for legalizing the copying of music or software could be based on the idea that it promotes access to information and cultural expression. Advocates might argue that copyright restrictions can hinder creativity by limiting individuals’ ability to build upon or remix existing works. They might also argue that copying and sharing music or software can lead to wider dissemination of these works, which can have positive societal effects, such as increased cultural exchange and educational opportunities. Additionally, supporters of legalization might argue that alternative business models, such as subscription services or crowdfunding, can provide viable economic models for creators while still allowing for more flexible use of copyrighted materials.