a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples. 3 APA  References


Diabetes is a complex and chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is a global health concern affecting millions of people worldwide. There are several types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Each type has distinct characteristics, etiology, and treatment approaches. This paper provides a brief explanation of the differences between these types of diabetes, focusing on type 2 diabetes. It also discusses one type of drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, its preparation, administration, and dietary considerations. Finally, it explores the short-term and long-term impact of type 2 diabetes on patients, including the effects of drug treatments.

Types of Diabetes

1. Type 1 Diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disorder. In this condition, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin production. Individuals with type 1 diabetes require lifelong insulin therapy for survival. It commonly develops during childhood or adolescence. Type 1 diabetes is uncontrollable and cannot be prevented.

2. Type 2 Diabetes: Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent form of diabetes. It typically occurs in adulthood, although it is becoming increasingly common in children and adolescents due to rising obesity rates. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. In this condition, the body either does not produce enough insulin or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Lifestyle factors such as poor diet, sedentary behavior, and obesity contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. It can be managed through lifestyle modifications, oral medications, and/or insulin therapy.

3. Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when the body is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the increased demands caused by the hormonal changes of pregnancy. It typically develops around the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, women who develop gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Blood glucose levels are closely monitored during pregnancy, and treatment involves lifestyle modifications and, in some cases, insulin therapy.

Drug Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin, a biguanide medication, is commonly prescribed as a first-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. It works by reducing glucose production in the liver, enhancing insulin sensitivity, and improving glucose uptake by muscle cells. Metformin helps lower blood glucose levels and may also aid in weight loss.

Preparation and Administration: Metformin is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release tablets, and liquid. The immediate-release tablets should be taken with meals to reduce gastrointestinal side effects. The extended-release tablets are taken once daily and are better tolerated by patients. Metformin is usually started at a low dose and gradually increased to the target dose to minimize side effects such as nausea and diarrhea. Patients should follow their healthcare provider’s instructions regarding the timing, frequency, and dosage of metformin administration.

Dietary Considerations: Proper diet and nutrition play a vital role in managing type 2 diabetes. The main dietary considerations for patients taking metformin include maintaining a balanced diet, monitoring carbohydrate intake, and avoiding excessive sugar consumption. A diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats is recommended. It is important to avoid processed foods, sugary beverages, and excessive alcohol consumption. Patients should be educated about portion control, carbohydrate counting, and regular meal timings to help maintain stable blood glucose levels.

Short-term and Long-term Impact of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes can have various short-term and long-term impacts on patients. In the short term, uncontrolled blood glucose levels can lead to hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, characterized by elevated blood glucose levels, can cause symptoms such as increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, and blurred vision. Hypoglycemia, on the other hand, occurs when blood glucose levels drop too low and can lead to symptoms such as shakiness, sweating, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Proper medication administration, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, and adherence to prescribed dietary and lifestyle modifications can help prevent these short-term complications.

In the long term, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes can lead to several complications, including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and poor wound healing. These complications can significantly impact a patient’s quality of life and increase the risk of disability and premature death. However, early diagnosis, effective management, and appropriate drug treatments can reduce the risk and severity of these long-term complications. For example, metformin has been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and reduce the risk of diabetic kidney disease.


In conclusion, diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder with different types. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form and can be managed through lifestyle modifications, oral medications, and/or insulin therapy. Metformin is a commonly prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes and can help control blood glucose levels and aid in weight loss. Proper preparation, administration, and dietary considerations are essential when using this drug. Type 2 diabetes can have short-term complications such as hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, while long-term complications can include cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and poor wound healing. Proper management and adherence to treatment plans can significantly reduce the risk and severity of these complications.