a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples


Diabetes is a complex health condition characterized by high blood sugar levels due to the body’s inability to regulate insulin production or effectively use insulin. There are several different types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Each type of diabetes has distinct characteristics, etiology, and treatment protocols. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the differences between these types of diabetes, focusing on type 2 diabetes. Additionally, it will explore a specific drug used for treating type 2 diabetes, including the proper preparation and administration of the drug. Furthermore, the paper will discuss the dietary considerations related to type 2 diabetes treatment. Finally, it will analyze the short-term and long-term impact of type 2 diabetes on patients, including the effects of drug treatments.

Differences between Types of Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is an autoimmune disorder where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leads to an absolute deficiency of insulin, requiring individuals to depend on exogenous insulin for survival. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed during childhood or adolescence and necessitates lifelong insulin therapy.

On the other hand, type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity. In this condition, the body either does not produce enough insulin or fails to use insulin effectively. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It is often associated with obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poor dietary choices. While type 1 diabetes is not preventable, type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modifications.

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when blood sugar levels rise above normal levels. It typically resolves after childbirth, but women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Proper management of blood sugar levels during pregnancy is essential to ensure a healthy outcome for both the mother and the baby.

Juvenile diabetes, also called type 1 diabetes, is the same as described earlier. The term “juvenile” refers to the fact that it usually manifests in childhood or adolescence.

Drug for Treating Type 2 Diabetes:

One commonly prescribed medication for treating type 2 diabetes is metformin. Metformin belongs to the class of drugs known as biguanides and works by reducing glucose production in the liver and improving insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. This helps to lower blood sugar levels and improve glycemic control.

To prepare metformin for administration, it is available in oral tablet form. The standard dosage of metformin for adults is usually initiated at 500 mg to 850 mg once or twice daily, taken with meals. However, the dosage may vary depending on individual factors such as age, renal function, and glycemic control. It is important to follow the prescription instructions provided by the healthcare provider and not exceed the recommended dosage.

When administering metformin, it is crucial to consider certain factors. Firstly, individuals with renal impairment should be monitored closely when taking metformin, as it is primarily excreted through the kidneys. The drug may accumulate in the body, leading to potential side effects or complications. Secondly, patients should be advised to take the medication with meals to minimize gastrointestinal side effects, such as nausea and diarrhea. Lastly, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is essential to assess the effectiveness of the drug and adjust dosage if necessary.

Dietary Considerations:

Diet plays a crucial role in managing type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes should follow a well-balanced diet that focuses on portion control, carbohydrate counting, and glycemic index. Carbohydrates should be consumed in moderation, with an emphasis on complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, instead of simple sugars. It is important to distribute carbohydrate intake throughout the day and consider the timing of meals and snacks to maintain optimal blood sugar levels. Additionally, individuals with type 2 diabetes should limit their intake of saturated and trans fats, sodium, and processed foods to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications.

Short-Term and Long-Term Impact:

Type 2 diabetes can have both short-term and long-term impacts on patients. In the short term, uncontrolled blood sugar levels can lead to symptoms such as frequent urination, excessive thirst, fatigue, and slow wound healing. These symptoms can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life and daily activities. If left untreated, acute complications, including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS), can occur, necessitating immediate medical intervention.

In the long term, unmanaged type 2 diabetes can lead to chronic complications, including cardiovascular diseases (such as heart attack and stroke), kidney disease, nerve damage (neuropathy), retinopathy (vision problems), and lower limb amputations. The risk of developing these complications is higher in patients with poor glycemic control. However, implementing appropriate lifestyle modifications, including medication adherence, regular exercise, and a healthy diet, can help minimize the risk of complications and improve overall health outcomes for individuals with type 2 diabetes.


In conclusion, diabetes encompasses several types, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Each type has specific characteristics and treatment protocols. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent form and often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity and poor diet choices. Metformin, a commonly prescribed medication, is effective in managing type 2 diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity and reducing glucose production. Proper preparation and administration of metformin, as well as adherence to dietary considerations, are necessary for optimal treatment outcomes. Type 2 diabetes can have both short-term and long-term impacts on patients, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and comprehensive management to prevent acute and chronic complications.