4-5 pages APA format A.  Select of the following communicable diseases that has had an outbreak across international borders: •  influenza •  measles •  respiratory syndrome coronavirus •  meningococcal disease •  HIV/AIDS •  Ebola virus •  hepatitis B •  hepatitis C •  tuberculosis •  Zika virus B.  Describe the outbreak of the disease selected in part A, including of the following: •  name of the disease •  the countries involved •  the date the outbreak was discovered •  the dates the disease reached involved country 1.  Analyze the epidemiological determinants and risk factors associated with the outbreak. 2.  Discuss the route of transmission of the selected disease. 3.  Discuss how an outbreak of the selected disease would impact your community at a systems level (e.g., the functioning of schools, local government, businesses, hospitals). 4.  Explain what the reporting protocol would be if an outbreak of the selected disease were to occur in your community. 5.  Discuss strategies (e.g., patient education strategies, community education strategies) that you would recommend to prevent an outbreak of the selected disease in your community.

Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases, are illnesses caused by microorganisms or the transmission of pathogens from one person to another. They can spread rapidly and pose a significant threat to public health. In this assignment, we will focus on one communicable disease that has had an outbreak across international borders. We will analyze its outbreak, epidemiological determinants and risk factors, route of transmission, impact on the community at a systems level, reporting protocol, and strategies for prevention.

For this assignment, I have selected the Ebola virus as the communicable disease of interest. Ebola is a severe and often fatal illness caused by the Ebola virus. It is characterized by fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat, and it can progress to vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, internal and external bleeding. The disease was first identified in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The Ebola outbreak we will focus on occurred between 2014 and 2016 and affected several countries in West Africa, including Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The outbreak was first discovered in Guinea in December 2013, but it was not until March 2014 that the outbreak was officially declared. The disease quickly spread to neighboring countries, with Liberia and Sierra Leone being the hardest hit.

The epidemiological determinants and risk factors associated with the Ebola outbreak were multifactorial. The primary mode of transmission of Ebola is through direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected animals, such as fruit bats, monkeys, or chimpanzees. Human-to-human transmission occurs through direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected individuals, or through contact with surfaces and materials contaminated with these fluids.

Several risk factors contributed to the rapid spread of Ebola during the outbreak. These included traditional burial practices, which involved close contact with the deceased; lack of proper infection control measures in healthcare settings; and the movement of infected individuals across borders, facilitated by population displacement, migration, and inadequate quarantine measures.

The route of transmission of Ebola is primarily through direct contact with infected bodily fluids. This can occur during caregiving activities, such as providing assistance to an infected individual, handling their bodily fluids without proper protective equipment, or participating in traditional burial rites.

In terms of the impact on the community at a systems level, an outbreak of Ebola can have significant consequences. The functioning of schools, local government, businesses, and hospitals may be severely disrupted. Schools may need to be closed to prevent the spread of the disease, leading to a pause in education and potential long-term impacts on children’s development. Local government authorities may need to implement emergency measures, such as quarantines and travel restrictions, to contain the outbreak. Businesses may suffer due to reduced economic activity and decreased consumer confidence. Hospitals and healthcare facilities may become overwhelmed with the influx of patients, leading to strained resources and increased mortality rates.

If an outbreak of Ebola were to occur in the community, the reporting protocol would involve immediate notification of the local health department and adherence to established guidelines and protocols. Healthcare providers would be required to report any suspected or confirmed cases of Ebola to the appropriate authorities, who would then initiate the necessary response activities, including contact tracing, isolation of cases, and provision of medical care.

Prevention of an outbreak of Ebola in the community requires a multifaceted approach. Patient education strategies should focus on raising awareness about the signs and symptoms of Ebola, promoting good hygiene practices, and encouraging individuals to seek medical attention early if they develop any symptoms. Community education strategies should include the dissemination of accurate information about Ebola, its mode of transmission, and preventive measures. This can be done through community meetings, media campaigns, and educational materials distributed in schools, workplaces, and public places. Additionally, efforts should be made to strengthen healthcare systems, improve infection control practices, and enhance surveillance and response capabilities to detect and respond to potential outbreaks in a timely manner.