2 citaions, 2 matching refernces.  2 paragraphs KC8: COPD A 64-year-old man with a 40 pack/year history of cigarette smoking has been diagnosed with emphysema. He asks the APRN if this means he has COPD. a. Explain the pathophysiology of emphysema and how it relates to COPD. Then relate to Scenario b. I will send b question later. Usually answered in one paragraph. I must submit ‘a’ to have access to b. Purchase the answer to view it

Emphysema is a chronic lung disease characterized by the destruction of the alveoli, the tiny air sacs in the lungs where oxygen exchange takes place. This destruction is primarily caused by long-term exposure to noxious particles or gases, most commonly cigarette smoke. When a person smokes, harmful substances in the smoke are inhaled into the lungs, triggering an immune response. In an attempt to remove these harmful substances, white blood cells release enzymes and other chemical mediators, which can damage the tissues of the alveoli. Over time, this damage accumulates, leading to the destruction of the alveoli and the formation of large, non-functional air spaces within the lungs.

This destruction of the alveoli in emphysema is significant because it impairs the normal function of the lungs. The alveoli are responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, allowing oxygen to enter the bloodstream and carbon dioxide to be removed. When the alveoli are damaged, this exchange becomes less efficient, leading to decreased oxygen levels and increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood. This imbalance can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and decreased exercise tolerance.

Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a term that encompasses a group of lung conditions characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Other common types of COPD include chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. The connection between emphysema and COPD lies in the fact that emphysema is one of the main contributors to the development of COPD.

COPD is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, making it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs. In the case of emphysema, the destruction of the alveoli leads to loss of elasticity in the lung tissue, which in turn causes the airways to collapse. This collapse further obstructs the airflow, contributing to the airflow limitation seen in COPD.

It is important to note that not all individuals with emphysema will develop COPD, as COPD can result from other factors such as chronic bronchitis or asthma. However, emphysema is a major risk factor for the development of COPD, and the two conditions often coexist in individuals who are diagnosed with COPD.

In summary, emphysema is a lung disease characterized by the destruction of alveoli, resulting in impaired oxygen exchange. It is one of the main contributors to the development of COPD, a group of chronic lung diseases characterized by airflow limitation. The destruction of alveoli in emphysema leads to loss of lung tissue elasticity and contributes to the airflow obstruction seen in COPD. Smoking is the most common cause of emphysema and COPD, and quitting smoking is an essential step in managing and preventing the progression of these conditions.