2)¨**********APA norms  (All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraphs) 4) References not older than 5 years 5) Each answer must be identified according to the question number. Check the list of questions. Your answer should start objectively answering the question Question: 1)………… 2)………… 3)………… Answer: 1)………… 2)………… 3)………… _______________________________________________________ 1) Choose and explain one of the eye diseases in related with aging: choose one for each answer Cataracts. Glaucoma. Diabetic retinopathy 2)Discuss its possible treatments.

Answer: 1) Cataracts is an eye disease commonly associated with aging. It is characterized by the clouding of the lens of the eye, which leads to blurred vision and reduced visual acuity. Cataracts are a progressive condition and can eventually cause total blindness if left untreated. The exact cause of cataracts is not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, and long-term exposure to ultraviolet light have been identified as potential risk factors.

Cataracts can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. The examination may include visual acuity tests, a slit-lamp examination, and a dilated eye exam. Additionally, cataracts can be detected through the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) or fundus photography.

The treatment for cataracts is primarily surgical intervention. The most common surgical procedure for cataracts is called phacoemulsification. During this procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and an ultrasound device is used to break up the cloudy lens into small pieces. The fragments are then removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). Phacoemulsification is a minimally invasive procedure and generally has a high success rate with low risk of complications.

Another treatment option for cataracts is the use of corrective eyewear, such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. However, this is a temporary solution and does not address the underlying cause of the cataracts. It is usually recommended for individuals who are not ready to undergo surgery or who have contraindications for surgery.

In recent years, advances in technology have led to the development of new surgical techniques for cataract removal. These include femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). FLACS uses a laser to create precise incisions in the eye, while SMILE involves the removal of a small lenticule to correct the refractive error. These techniques offer greater precision and potentially faster recovery times compared to traditional phacoemulsification.

2) Glaucoma is another eye disease commonly associated with aging. It is characterized by damage to the optic nerve, usually caused by high intraocular pressure (IOP). This damage can result in permanent vision loss if left untreated. Glaucoma is a chronic condition that often progresses slowly and without noticeable symptoms in its early stages. It is estimated that around 3 million Americans have glaucoma, making it one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide.

There are different types of glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type, accounting for about 90% of all cases. It occurs when the trabecular meshwork, which is responsible for draining the fluid from the eye, becomes less efficient over time. This leads to an increase in IOP and eventual damage to the optic nerve. Closed-angle glaucoma, on the other hand, occurs when the iris blocks the drainage angle of the eye, causing a sudden rise in IOP. This type of glaucoma is less common but can cause rapid and severe vision loss if not treated promptly.

The treatment for glaucoma aims to reduce IOP and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. This typically involves the use of medications, such as eye drops or oral medications, which either decrease the production of aqueous humor or increase its outflow. In some cases, laser surgery or conventional surgery may be necessary to lower IOP. Laser trabeculoplasty is a common procedure that uses a laser to improve the drainage of fluid from the eye. Trabeculectomy, on the other hand, involves creating a small opening in the eye to allow for better fluid drainage.

It is important to note that while treatment can effectively control glaucoma and prevent further vision loss, it cannot reverse existing damage to the optic nerve. Regular monitoring and follow-up care are necessary to ensure that the disease is managed effectively and to prevent further vision loss. Additionally, early detection and treatment are crucial in preventing irreversible vision loss in individuals with glaucoma.

In conclusion, both cataracts and glaucoma are eye diseases commonly associated with aging. Cataracts can be treated through surgical intervention, such as phacoemulsification, while glaucoma is primarily managed through the use of medications and surgeries to lower intraocular pressure. Timely diagnosis and treatment are key in preserving vision and preventing further damage to the eyes.