1.Stress and Disease: Describe the physiologic effects on body systems of increased cortisol levels released during the stress response. 2.Review the current research evidence from credible, scholarly sources and summarize the results of the effects and health risks of electromagnetic radiation (from cellular and cordless telephones, microwaves, computers, fluorescent lights, radar, and electronic equipment). Use at least one scholarly source other than your textbook to connect your response to national guidelines and evidence-based research in support of your ideas.

1. The physiologic effects of increased cortisol levels released during the stress response have been extensively researched and are well-documented. Cortisol, commonly referred to as the stress hormone, is released by the adrenal glands in response to stressors, both physical and psychological. Its primary role is to prepare the body for a “fight or flight” response by increasing energy production and inhibiting functions that are not immediately necessary for survival.

One major effect of increased cortisol levels is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to an increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and enhanced glucose production, all of which are necessary for a quick and efficient response to a stressful situation. However, chronic release of cortisol can result in sustained activation of these systems, leading to long-term negative effects on the body.

Elevated cortisol levels can also disrupt the immune system’s functioning. Cortisol inhibits the production of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, which play a crucial role in defending against infections and diseases. This immune suppression can make individuals more susceptible to infections and slow down the healing process.

Furthermore, cortisol has been shown to have detrimental effects on the digestive system. It can increase the production of gastric acid and impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal lining, leading to conditions such as ulcers. Additionally, cortisol can increase appetite, particularly for high-calorie foods, which, when consumed in excess, can contribute to weight gain and obesity.

In terms of the cardiovascular system, chronic elevation of cortisol levels has been associated with numerous cardiovascular risk factors. These include increased blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, all of which contribute to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease and stroke.

Cortisol also affects the central nervous system, specifically the brain. Prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels can lead to structural changes in certain areas of the brain, such as the hippocampus. This can affect memory, learning, and emotional regulation. It has been suggested that these changes may contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety.

2. The effects and health risks of electromagnetic radiation have been a topic of concern and research in recent years. Electromagnetic radiation from various sources, including cellular and cordless telephones, microwaves, computers, fluorescent lights, radar, and electronic equipment, has been linked to potential health effects. However, the current research evidence regarding these effects is still evolving, and there is ongoing debate and controversy regarding their impact on human health.

Numerous studies have examined the potential risks of electromagnetic radiation exposure, particularly from mobile phones. Some studies have suggested an association between long-term mobile phone use and an increased risk of certain types of brain tumors, such as gliomas and acoustic neuromas. However, the overall evidence remains inconclusive, and some studies have reported no significant association.

The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified electromagnetic fields, including those emitted by mobile phones, as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” based on limited evidence from human studies. However, it is important to note that this classification does not establish a causal relationship between exposure and cancer.

In terms of other electromagnetic radiation sources, such as microwaves, computers, fluorescent lights, radar, and electronic equipment, the current evidence does not suggest significant health risks at exposure levels typically encountered in daily life. The levels of electromagnetic radiation emitted by these devices are generally considered to be well below the threshold for causing adverse health effects.

The existing national guidelines and evidence-based research provide some recommendations on reducing potential risks from electromagnetic radiation. These include keeping mobile phones away from the body, using hands-free devices or speakerphone options, and limiting the duration and frequency of mobile phone calls. Additionally, using devices with lower electromagnetic emissions, such as corded phones and wired internet connections, can further minimize exposure.

In conclusion, increased cortisol levels during the stress response have various physiologic effects on the body systems, including the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, immune system suppression, digestive system disruptions, cardiovascular risk factors, and potential brain changes. The effects and health risks of electromagnetic radiation from various sources are still under investigation, with some limited evidence suggesting a potential association with certain types of tumors. However, the overall evidence remains inconclusive, and adherence to national guidelines and evidence-based research can help individuals minimize potential risks from electromagnetic radiation exposure.