1. Steroid medications  can increase osteoporosis risk, so sufficient calcium, vitamin D, magnesium and vitamin K are needed for bone health and long-term steroid use also can cause deficiencies in vitamin C, vitamin B12, folic acid, zinc and selenium (Zidbeh. 2017). What are some appropriate food sources that will help prevent those deficiencies? 2.  This discussion has focused upon foodborne diseases.  Let’s change direction for a moment.  How are microbes used positively in the food industry?  Please give some examples.  Explain.

1. Adequate nutrient intake is crucial for maintaining bone health, especially when taking steroids that may increase the risk of osteoporosis. Here are some appropriate food sources that can help prevent deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals:

– Calcium: Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt are excellent sources of calcium. Other options include fortified plant-based milk alternatives, calcium-rich vegetables like kale and broccoli, and fortified cereals.

– Vitamin D: Fatty fish like salmon and mackerel are great sources of vitamin D. Other options include fortified dairy products, fortified orange juice, and egg yolks. Vitamin D can also be synthesized by our bodies through exposure to sunlight.

– Magnesium: Nuts and seeds, such as almonds and pumpkin seeds, are rich sources of magnesium. Other options include legumes, dark leafy greens like spinach, and whole grains.

– Vitamin K: Green leafy vegetables like kale, spinach, and broccoli are high in vitamin K. Other options include certain oils like soybean and canola oil, as well as fermented foods like natto.

– Vitamin C: Citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and grapefruits are well-known sources of vitamin C. Other options include strawberries, kiwi, red bell peppers, and tomatoes.

– Vitamin B12: Animal products, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy, are the primary sources of vitamin B12. Vegans and vegetarians may consider fortified plant-based milk alternatives and breakfast cereals, as well as vitamin B12 supplements.

– Folic acid: Leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, legumes, and fortified grains are good sources of folic acid. It is essential to ensure adequate folate intake, particularly for pregnant women.

– Zinc: Oysters are considered the richest source of zinc. Other options include red meat, poultry, beans, nuts, and dairy products.

– Selenium: Brazil nuts are known to be exceptionally rich in selenium. Other options include seafood, meat, poultry, eggs, and grains.

It is important to note that individual nutrient needs may vary based on age, sex, overall health, and medication use. Consulting with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian can help tailor dietary recommendations and address specific nutrient deficiencies.

2. While foodborne diseases have been a major focus in discussions surrounding microbes and the food industry, it is equally important to recognize the positive roles that microbes play in food production and processing. Microbes are involved in various processes, including fermentation, food preservation, and the production of specific food products. Here are some examples of how microbes are used positively in the food industry:

– Fermentation: Microbes, such as bacteria and yeast, are used in the fermentation of various food products. For instance, the fermentation of cabbage leads to the production of sauerkraut, while fermentation of soybeans results in soy sauce and tempeh. Fermentation not only enhances the flavor and texture of these foods but also contributes to their shelf life by producing organic acids and inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria.

– Cheese and yogurt production: Bacteria are essential for the production of cheese and yogurt. Bacterial cultures are added to milk, which ferments and converts lactose into lactic acid. This process contributes to the unique flavors, textures, and nutritional qualities of these dairy products.

– Baking: Yeast is a common microbe used in baking. It is responsible for the fermentation process that causes bread dough to rise, resulting in the light and fluffy texture of bread products.

– Probiotics: Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. They are commonly found in fermented foods like yogurt, kefir, and kimchi. These beneficial bacteria can enhance digestive health, support the immune system, and potentially improve overall well-being.

– Biocontrol in agriculture: Certain beneficial microbes are used as natural alternatives to chemical pesticides in agriculture. These microbes help control plant diseases and pests, reducing the need for harmful chemicals and promoting sustainable farming practices.

By harnessing the positive attributes of microbes, the food industry can enhance food safety, flavor, preservation, and nutritional qualities. This underscores the importance of understanding and effectively utilizing microorganisms in food production and processing.