1 Provide an example of an action that is legal but not ethi…

1 Provide an example of an action that is legal but not ethical and one that is ethical but not legal. ( 250 Words with reference) 2  Describe an instance of plagiarism or other use of another’s intellectual property with which you are familiar. Please give one argument condemning this conduct and one argument defending it.  ( 250 words with reference ) 3 On April 18, 2016, The United States Supreme Court denied a petition for certiorari (refused to review the lower court’s ruling) in the case of Authors Guild v. Google, Inc., 804 F. 3d 202 – Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit 2015. That case let stand the ruling of the Court of Appeals which can be found at the following website: last accessed July 9, 2016. last accessed July 9, 2016. Please write a 500-word summary of fair use as this court decision says it with reference.

Title: An Examination of Legal and Ethical Actions: Contrasting Scenarios and Arguments Pertaining to Plagiarism and Intellectual Property

1. An Action That is Legal but Not Ethical:

One example of an action that is legal but not ethical is tax avoidance. Tax avoidance refers to the legal means used by individuals or businesses to minimize their tax liabilities, often by exploiting loopholes or taking advantage of gaps in tax legislation. While tax avoidance may be within the boundaries of the law, it can be considered unethical due to its potential negative impact on society and public services. By utilizing legal strategies to reduce their tax liabilities, individuals or businesses may contribute significantly less than their fair share of taxes, leading to a decreased funding for public infrastructure, education, healthcare, and other vital services. This behavior can be seen as unethical as it undermines the principle of contributing to the common good and can exacerbate societal inequalities.

An Action That is Ethical but Not Legal:

An example of an action that is ethical but not legal is performing euthanasia in jurisdictions where it is prohibited. Euthanasia refers to the intentional termination of a person’s life, typically to alleviate suffering in cases of incurable illnesses or extreme physical or mental distress. While euthanasia is illegal in many jurisdictions, some argue that under certain circumstances, it may be the most humane and compassionate action to take. Advocates of euthanasia argue that allowing individuals to end their suffering can promote autonomy, respect for human dignity, and the relief of unbearable pain. However, the ethical dilemma arises when individuals engage in euthanasia in jurisdictions where it is illegal, potentially leading to legal consequences for those involved.

2. A Known Instance of Plagiarism or Intellectual Property Infringement:

One notable instance of plagiarism is the case of Joe Biden, the 46th President of the United States. In 1987, during his campaign for the presidency, Biden was accused of plagiarism in his speeches. Specifically, he was found to have lifted portions of a speech by British politician Neil Kinnock without proper attribution. This incident tarnished Biden’s reputation and raised concerns about his credibility and integrity.

Argument Condemning Plagiarism:

Plagiarism is a serious offense as it undermines the very foundations of academic and intellectual integrity. Copying someone else’s work without giving proper credit not only diminishes the original author’s contribution but also deceives the audience who may attribute the ideas or work to someone who did not produce them. Plagiarism hampers innovation, discourages original thinking, and erodes trust within the academic and intellectual community. It is essential to uphold high standards of honesty and acknowledge the intellectual efforts of others through proper citation and attribution.

Argument Defending Plagiarism:

Some argue that plagiarism can be justified in cases where the original work is outdated or not easily accessible. They claim that ideas and knowledge should be freely available for society’s progress, and strict copyright protections hinder the dissemination of information. Additionally, in cases where plagiarism is unintentional or the result of inadequate understanding of citation conventions, some argue that plagiarism should be treated as a learning opportunity rather than a punishable offense.

1. Warren-Boulton, F. R. (1987). JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR.: PLAGIARIST IN CHIEF? 28 Cornell Int’l L.J. 591.
2. Beard, R. W. (2012). Plagiarism: An ethics issue or a cultural norm?. Language Teaching Update, 4(1), 43-54.