#1 Describe the typical social, cognitive, moral and spiritual development in the school-age child.  What are some of their nutritional needs? #2  Review the 2020 National Health Goals related to adolescent growth and development. #3 What are some assessment differences that you would look for in the adolescent assessment that you would not do for other age groups? #4 Write a nursing diagnoses related to communication and health with children.  Include your interventions for the diagnosis you decide upon.


The school-age child, typically between the ages of 6 and 12, undergoes significant social, cognitive, moral, and spiritual development. During this stage, children acquire new skills, knowledge, and abilities that enable them to navigate various aspects of their social environment.

In terms of social development, school-age children begin to form friendships and develop a sense of belonging. They learn how to cooperate, negotiate, and resolve conflicts with their peers, which contributes to their social competence and enhances their overall well-being. Additionally, school-age children develop a stronger sense of self-identity and are often influenced by external factors such as media, peer groups, and societal norms.

Cognitively, school-age children experience notable advancements in their thinking abilities. They become more logical, develop problem-solving skills, and exhibit improved memory capabilities. This results in greater independence and autonomy in decision-making. Furthermore, their language skills continue to improve, enabling them to engage in more complex conversations and express their thoughts and emotions more effectively.

Moral development during this stage involves the formation of a moral conscience and an emerging sense of right and wrong. School-age children develop an understanding of fairness, justice, and empathy. They become more aware of societal rules and norms, and typically strive to conform to these standards. In addition, their ability to reason and consider consequences further contributes to their moral decision-making.

Spiritual development in school-age children centers on the exploration and understanding of values, beliefs, and meaning. They begin to question and seek answers about philosophical and existential concepts, such as the purpose of life and the existence of a higher power. This stage provides a foundation for developing their own value system and beliefs that guide their actions and interactions with others.

Regarding nutritional needs, school-age children require a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrients to support their growth and development. Iron and calcium are particularly important during this stage, as they play crucial roles in bone health and cognitive development. Additionally, school-age children often experience increased energy expenditure due to physical activity and growth, necessitating an adequate intake of carbohydrates and proteins. It is crucial for parents and caregivers to provide a healthy and balanced diet that includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and dairy products to meet these nutritional needs.


The 2020 National Health Goals, also known as Healthy People 2020, encompass a wide range of objectives related to adolescent growth and development. These goals serve as guidelines and targets for health promotion and disease prevention strategies.

One key goal is to improve adolescent health by promoting healthy behaviors and preventing risky behaviors. This includes objectives to reduce tobacco use, alcohol and substance abuse, and adolescent pregnancy rates. Additionally, there is a focus on promoting physical activity, proper nutrition, and mental well-being among adolescents.

Another goal is to enhance adolescent mental health by increasing access to mental health services and reducing stigma associated with seeking help. This recognizes the significant impact of mental health on overall well-being and emphasizes the importance of early intervention and support for adolescents experiencing mental health issues.

Furthermore, the National Health Goals aim to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies among adolescents. This involves increasing access to comprehensive sexual education and promoting the use of contraception.

Education and improving literacy rates among adolescents are also highlighted as important goals. Increasing access to quality education, reducing school dropout rates, and improving academic achievement are targeted to ensure the overall well-being of adolescents.

Finally, the National Health Goals acknowledge the importance of supportive environments and communities for healthy adolescent development. This includes creating safe and inclusive spaces for adolescents, promoting positive youth development, and eliminating barriers to healthcare and social services.


Assessments for adolescents differ from other age groups due to the unique developmental characteristics and specific health concerns associated with this stage of life. When assessing adolescents, there are several key differences to consider.

Firstly, privacy and confidentiality become increasingly important during adolescence. Adolescents may be more reluctant to disclose sensitive information or seek help if they feel that their privacy may be compromised. Therefore, healthcare providers must establish trust and create a safe environment that respects confidentiality.

Secondly, assessments for adolescents often focus on reproductive health and sexual activity. Providers should ask about sexual behaviors, contraceptive use, and potential exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Additionally, discussions surrounding puberty, menstruation, and body image are important in promoting healthy development and addressing any concerns or questions.

Mental health assessments are also crucial during adolescence, as this is a period when individuals may be more susceptible to mental health issues. Providers should inquire about emotional well-being, stress levels, and potential signs of depression or anxiety. Assessing for risk factors and protective factors is essential for early identification and intervention.

Substance abuse assessments play a significant role in adolescent healthcare. Providers should screen for substance abuse, including alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Identifying risk factors and providing education and intervention strategies can help prevent substance abuse and promote healthy choices.

Lastly, due to the increasing independence and autonomy of adolescents, it is important to involve them in their own healthcare decisions. Assessments should include discussions about their goals, preferences, and understanding of their own health and well-being.


Nursing diagnosis: Impaired Communication related to developmental stage and health condition in children.


1. Establish trust and rapport: Build a trusting relationship with the child and their family to facilitate open communication. Use age-appropriate communication techniques and ensure a non-threatening environment.

2. Use child-friendly language: Adapt communication style and language to the child’s developmental level. Use visual aids, storytelling, and play to enhance understanding and engagement.

3. Active listening: Show attentiveness and empathy by actively listening to the child’s concerns and responding appropriately. Encourage the child to express their thoughts and feelings, and validate their experiences.

4. Provide education and information: Offer age-appropriate explanations about the child’s health condition and treatment plan. Use visual aids, demonstrations, and interactive materials to enhance understanding and engagement.

5. Encourage expression of feelings: Create opportunities for the child to express their emotions and concerns through play, art, or verbal communication. Provide support and validation without judgment.

6. Facilitate communication with healthcare team: Act as an advocate for the child by ensuring effective communication between the child, their family, and the healthcare team. Involve the child in their own healthcare decisions and encourage their participation in discussions with healthcare providers.

7. Promote family involvement: Encourage parents and caregivers to actively participate in the child’s care and promote open communication within the family. Provide resources and support to help families navigate the challenges of the child’s health condition.

8. Collaborate with interdisciplinary team: Work together with other healthcare professionals, such as speech therapists or child psychologists, to address specific communication needs and provide comprehensive care.

9. Monitor progress and provide feedback: Regularly evaluate the effectiveness of communication interventions and provide feedback to the child and their family. Adjust interventions as needed to promote ongoing improvement in communication skills and overall well-being.