1.  Choose a newborn health challenge such as Down’s syndrome, cleft lip and palate, or absence of digits. 2.  An emergency room nurse is taking care of a 5-year-old boy who suffered trauma from a bike accident. His family identifies as Jehovah’s Witnesses. The nurse explains that the boy may need a blood transfusion. The parents express concern because taking blood, including via blood transfusion, is discouraged by their religion, a stance with which they agree.


Newborn health challenges can encompass a wide range of conditions, such as Down syndrome, cleft lip and palate, or absence of digits. These challenges can have significant physical and emotional impacts on both the child and their family. Additionally, religious beliefs and practices can further complicate the management and treatment of these challenges. This paper aims to address the situation of a 5-year-old boy who suffered trauma from a bike accident and belongs to a Jehovah’s Witness family. The parents express concern about the potential need for a blood transfusion, as their religion discourages the use of blood products. This topic raises ethical and legal considerations that must be carefully examined, taking into account the best interests of the child and the religious beliefs of the family.

Background: Newborn Health Challenges

Newborn health challenges can vary in severity and impact on the child’s overall well-being. Down syndrome, a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21, leads to cognitive impairment and physical characteristics such as a flattened facial profile and upward slanting eyes. Cleft lip and palate are structural abnormalities affecting the upper lip and the roof of the mouth, which can impact speech and feeding. Absence of digits, also known as limb reduction defects, involves the incomplete development or absence of fingers or toes.

These conditions often require specialized medical care and may involve surgical interventions, therapy, and support from various healthcare professionals. Additionally, the emotional and psychological well-being of both the child and their family should be considered when addressing the challenges associated with these conditions.

The Ethics of Blood Transfusions

Jehovah’s Witnesses hold religious beliefs that discourage the use of blood and blood products, stemming from their interpretation of biblical passages. They believe that the Bible prohibits the ingestion or transfusion of blood, as blood represents life, which is considered sacred. However, individual beliefs and practices within the Jehovah’s Witness community can vary, and some adherents may be more flexible regarding certain medical interventions, including blood transfusions.

Blood transfusions are commonly used in emergency situations to replace lost blood and restore oxygen to vital organs. They can be life-saving in cases of severe bleeding or anemia. However, the decision to administer a blood transfusion to a child with Jehovah’s Witness parents requires careful consideration of both medical and ethical factors.

The Best Interests of the Child

In situations involving the healthcare of a child, the best interests of the child are of paramount importance. This principle reflects the notion that decisions should prioritize the child’s well-being, safety, and long-term prospects. It is often used as a guiding principle in ethical decision-making, particularly in cases where parents’ religious beliefs may conflict with recommended medical interventions.

When considering the best interests of the child in the context of a blood transfusion, healthcare professionals should assess the potential risks and benefits involved. The child’s medical condition, prognosis, and alternative treatment options should be thoroughly considered. If a blood transfusion is determined to be the most appropriate and life-saving intervention, steps should be taken to ensure the child’s well-being while respecting the parents’ religious beliefs.